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The fact that hydrogen bonds need to be broken for water to evaporate means that a substantial amount of energy is used in the process. As the water evaporates, energy is taken up by the process, cooling the environment where the evaporation is taking place. In many living organisms, including in humans, the evaporation of sweat, which is 90 percent water, allows the organism to cool so that homeostasis of body temperature can be maintained.

Water’s solvent properties

Since water is a polar molecule with slightly positive and slightly negative charges, ions and polar molecules can readily dissolve in it. Therefore, water is referred to as a solvent    , a substance capable of dissolving other polar molecules and ionic compounds. The charges associated with these molecules will form hydrogen bonds with water, surrounding the particle with water molecules. This is referred to as a sphere of hydration    , or a hydration shell, as illustrated in [link] and serves to keep the particles separated or dispersed in the water.

When ionic compounds are added to water, the individual ions react with the polar regions of the water molecules and their ionic bonds are disrupted in the process of dissociation    . Dissociation occurs when atoms or groups of atoms break off from molecules and form ions. Consider table salt (NaCl, or sodium chloride): when NaCl crystals are added to water, the molecules of NaCl dissociate into Na + and Cl ions, and spheres of hydration form around the ions, illustrated in [link] . The positively charged sodium ion is surrounded by the partially negative charge of the water molecule’s oxygen. The negatively charged chloride ion is surrounded by the partially positive charge of the hydrogen on the water molecule.

When sodium chloride dissolves in water, the positively charged sodium ions interact with the oxygen of water, and the negatively charged chlorine ions interact with the hydrogen of water.
When table salt (NaCl) is mixed in water, spheres of hydration are formed around the ions.

Water’s cohesive and adhesive properties

Have you ever filled a glass of water to the very top and then slowly added a few more drops? Before it overflows, the water forms a dome-like shape above the rim of the glass. This water can stay above the glass because of the property of cohesion    . In cohesion, water molecules are attracted to each other (because of hydrogen bonding), keeping the molecules together at the liquid-gas (water-air) interface, although there is no more room in the glass.

Cohesion allows for the development of surface tension    , the capacity of a substance to withstand being ruptured when placed under tension or stress. This is also why water forms droplets when placed on a dry surface rather than being flattened out by gravity. When a small scrap of paper is placed onto the droplet of water, the paper floats on top of the water droplet even though paper is denser (heavier) than the water. Cohesion and surface tension keep the hydrogen bonds of water molecules intact and support the item floating on the top. It’s even possible to “float” a needle on top of a glass of water if it is placed gently without breaking the surface tension, as shown in [link] .

A need floats in a glass of water.
The weight of the needle is pulling the surface downward; at the same time, the surface tension is pulling it up, suspending it on the surface of the water and keeping it from sinking. Notice the indentation in the water around the needle. (credit: Cory Zanker)

Questions & Answers

this is a specialized part of the cell eg Nucleus
David Reply
what are the organelles?
Faith Reply
what is reproduction
mana Reply
reproduction is the process by which living organisms give rise to young ones of their own kind
What is evolution
the production of new forms of life over time as documented in the fossil record.
give two parasites where secondary host is water snail?
Kevin Reply
what is treats
Raih Reply
what are the organelles in cell that involves in protein sythenis
Rita Reply
what is a melanin?
Judith Reply
what is telophase
melanin in that black color we posse in our skins
Why do parasites take on a parasitic life?
Asadullah Reply
what is cell
Ousman Reply
A cell is the basic structure unit of an organ
what is respiration
what is organisms?
Organisms are living things that can function on their own
A cell is a functional basic unit of an organisms.
Organisms is a entity which consists of one or more cells and are able to undergo all life processes
A respiration is the physical and chemical break down of complex food substance into absorbable or simple form.
What will to a cell if the nucleus is removed..?
Goodrick Reply
When a cell nucleus removed then the cell will not be able to function properly, it will not be able to grow .All the metabolic functioning of the cell will stop .Without nucleus the cell will lose it's control. It can not carry out cellular reproduction .
defin peroxesome
write a short note on how the kidney carry out osmoregulation in man
Rhoda Reply
Kidney play a very large role in human osoregulation by regulating the amount of water reabsorbed from glomerular filtrate in kidney as tubules, which is controlled by hormones such as antrdiuvetic hormone (ADH) , aldosterone and angiotensin.
kidney is capable of osmoregulation in mammal ,
simple definition for respiratory system
Gift Reply
Respiratory system is a network of organs and tissues that helps you to breathe or help in getting the rids of oxygen and discharge of carbon dioxide in the body.
What are uses of respiratory system
how it functions
what is inresparetion
Why do parasites take on a parasitic life?
A respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plant
diseases of respiration
when air enters to the body called inresparetion
explain why plants responds to stimuli slowly than animals
how is a aerenchyma tissue adapted to its function
fatuma Reply
Have large air spaces that store air for gaseous exchange... Large air spaces also facilitate bouyancy.
what does DNA mean
innocent Reply
dioxiribo nucleic acid
Deoxyribonucleic acid
dioxide nucleic acid
what does RNA mean
Ribonucleic acid
what is DNA and RNA
defin work of DNA
it's control gene expression during the cell cycle
what is a zygote
Victor Reply
zygote is developed or fertilized egg cell

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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