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This was a century of turmoil and destruction for Ireland as the Irish lost their liberty to England as well as suffering repeated famines. The Anglo-Norman sections prospered while the remainder of the country despaired and the cleavage between the two peoples became very marked, a situation which remains in this 20th century. (Ref. 119 , 222 )


It was a time of tribal union and bardic poetry in Wales. A national revival was led by Llewelyn, Prince of north Wales, against the English Henry III but there was no great bloodshed until the latter was succeeded by Edward I. He waged war against the Welsh, using the long bow, which the English had available after A.D. 1200. Cavalry was useless in Wales but archers could score with the long shots, loosing five to six arrows in the time required for only one cross-bow shot. After many battles, Wales was finally subdued and made a part of England, in 1281, which is not to say that real peace was obtained. Coal mining records in Wales go back to this 13th century. Additional Notes



Haakon the Old (1217-1263) ruled ably and generously and brought Iceland, Greenland and the Faeroes temporarily under Norwegian power. This was the era of Snorre Sturlason, who wrote Heimskringla, a history of Norwegian kings which was to become the chief source of early Norwegian history and the prose Edda, about Norse mythology. Haakon V (1299-1319) was the last male of the line of Fairhair. (Ref. 34 , 222 )


The Swedish throne was on an elective basis. Earl Birger, a prime minister while his weak brother was actually king, abolished serfdom, established a reign of law, founded Stockholm and started the Folkung Dynasty by putting his son Waldemar on the throne in 1250 and then acting as his regent. He attempted to set up a European type of feudalism, establishing his other sons in quasi-independent duchies. One of these sons, Magnus Ladulos, overthrew Waldemar but continued his father's feudal innovations although family feuding continued. Meanwhile the merchants of Sweden became rich through mining and trade.

Until the middle of the 13th century Sweden had supplied 1/2 of Europe with herring, but then the cities of the Hanseatic League (chiefly German) took over this industry. Fish was always a more important food than meat for millions of people. Cod, haddock, pottock and ling all were preserved primarily by drying, but herring could not be handled this way because it was too oily. It had to be salted. In Scandinavia, such meat as was available was beaten and then exposed to a clear, cool wind, for preservation. (Ref. 122 , 211 )


Denmark had the largest population of the Scandinavian countries at this time and claimed a part of what is now the Scania province in southern Sweden. The Danes burst into activity at the beginning of this century, winning a brief supremacy in the Baltic trade. Waldemar II the Victorious temporarily conquered northeast Germany and waged three crusades for the church against the heathen Baltic states of Livonia and Estonia, penetrating the Gulf of Finland and making the southern Baltic a Danish "lake". Waldemar is remembered by many because of his marriage to an exiled Bohemian princess, Dagmar, famous in Danish folklore. But the Danes suffered a crippling defeat in the 1220s and the German Baltic towns (later to be called the "Hanse") took over the Baltic and even the North Sea, also shutting out the Flemish by 1275. At a meeting of nobles in 1282 King Eric V was made to sign Denmark's first Royal Charter - the Magna Charta of Den- mark - and the Danehof was established as a national parliament. Eric had to promise to call a national assembly once a year and to cooperate with the nobles. (Ref. 117 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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