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Ireland

This was a century of turmoil and destruction for Ireland as the Irish lost their liberty to England as well as suffering repeated famines. The Anglo-Norman sections prospered while the remainder of the country despaired and the cleavage between the two peoples became very marked, a situation which remains in this 20th century. (Ref. 119 , 222 )

Wales

It was a time of tribal union and bardic poetry in Wales. A national revival was led by Llewelyn, Prince of north Wales, against the English Henry III but there was no great bloodshed until the latter was succeeded by Edward I. He waged war against the Welsh, using the long bow, which the English had available after A.D. 1200. Cavalry was useless in Wales but archers could score with the long shots, loosing five to six arrows in the time required for only one cross-bow shot. After many battles, Wales was finally subdued and made a part of England, in 1281, which is not to say that real peace was obtained. Coal mining records in Wales go back to this 13th century. Additional Notes

Scandinavia

Norway

Haakon the Old (1217-1263) ruled ably and generously and brought Iceland, Greenland and the Faeroes temporarily under Norwegian power. This was the era of Snorre Sturlason, who wrote Heimskringla, a history of Norwegian kings which was to become the chief source of early Norwegian history and the prose Edda, about Norse mythology. Haakon V (1299-1319) was the last male of the line of Fairhair. (Ref. 34 , 222 )

Sweden

The Swedish throne was on an elective basis. Earl Birger, a prime minister while his weak brother was actually king, abolished serfdom, established a reign of law, founded Stockholm and started the Folkung Dynasty by putting his son Waldemar on the throne in 1250 and then acting as his regent. He attempted to set up a European type of feudalism, establishing his other sons in quasi-independent duchies. One of these sons, Magnus Ladulos, overthrew Waldemar but continued his father's feudal innovations although family feuding continued. Meanwhile the merchants of Sweden became rich through mining and trade.

Until the middle of the 13th century Sweden had supplied 1/2 of Europe with herring, but then the cities of the Hanseatic League (chiefly German) took over this industry. Fish was always a more important food than meat for millions of people. Cod, haddock, pottock and ling all were preserved primarily by drying, but herring could not be handled this way because it was too oily. It had to be salted. In Scandinavia, such meat as was available was beaten and then exposed to a clear, cool wind, for preservation. (Ref. 122 , 211 )

Denmark

Denmark had the largest population of the Scandinavian countries at this time and claimed a part of what is now the Scania province in southern Sweden. The Danes burst into activity at the beginning of this century, winning a brief supremacy in the Baltic trade. Waldemar II the Victorious temporarily conquered northeast Germany and waged three crusades for the church against the heathen Baltic states of Livonia and Estonia, penetrating the Gulf of Finland and making the southern Baltic a Danish "lake". Waldemar is remembered by many because of his marriage to an exiled Bohemian princess, Dagmar, famous in Danish folklore. But the Danes suffered a crippling defeat in the 1220s and the German Baltic towns (later to be called the "Hanse") took over the Baltic and even the North Sea, also shutting out the Flemish by 1275. At a meeting of nobles in 1282 King Eric V was made to sign Denmark's first Royal Charter - the Magna Charta of Den- mark - and the Danehof was established as a national parliament. Eric had to promise to call a national assembly once a year and to cooperate with the nobles. (Ref. 117 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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