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Baldwin explains the meaning of sampling, and identifies some of the problems that arise when sampling and processing analog signals. He explains the concept of the Nyquist folding frequency and illustrates the folding phenomena by plotting time series data as well as spectral data.

Revised: Fri Oct 16 23:11:24 CDT 2015

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This is one in a series of modules designed to teach you about Digital Signal Processing (DSP) using Java. The purpose of the miniseries is topresent the concepts of DSP in a way that can be understood by personshaving no prior DSP experience. However, some experience in Java programming would be useful. Whenever it is necessary for me to write a program toillustrate a point, I will write it in Java.

Viewing tip

I recommend that you open another copy of this module in a separate browser window and use the following links to easily find and view the Figureswhile you are reading about them.


  • Figure 1 . Samples from five different sinusoids.
  • Figure 2 . Rectangular representations of samples from five sinusoids.
  • Figure 3 . Trapezoidal representations of samples from five sinusoids.
  • Figure 4 . Most common representations of samples from five sinusoids.
  • Figure 5 . Five sampled sinusoids
  • Figure 6 . Result of re-sampling the five sinusoids.
  • Figure 7 . Spectral analyses of five sinusoids with no sampling problems.
  • Figure 8 . Spectral analyses of five sinusoids with sampling problem.
  • Figure 9 . Spectral analyses of five sinusoids with no sampling problems.
  • Figure 10 . Spectral analyses of five sinusoids with sampling problem


I will explain the meaning of sampling, and will explain some of the problems that arise when sampling and processing analog signals. Those problems generallyrelate to the relationship between the sampling frequency and the high-frequency components contained in the analog signal.

I will explain the concept of the Nyquist folding frequency , which is half the sampling frequency (more commonly called the sampling rate) .

I will illustrate the frequency folding phenomena by plotting sampled time series data as well as spectral data.


Sinusoids, time series, composition, and decomposition

I introduced you to sinusoids and sampled time series in an earlier module . I taught you about sine and cosine functions, and the Java methods used to calculate their values. I also introduced the concepts of period and frequency for sinusoids.

Questions & Answers

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what is a peer
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What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
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Stoney Reply
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biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Damian Reply
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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