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Clearly, the ratio of Human Capital to Physical Capital increased greatly over the past several decades (when Human Capital is measured as the number of effective units of skilled labor). Human Capital formation has also had important effects on health in such nations as the U.S. (Cutler&Lleras-Muney). David M. Cutler&Adriana Lleras-Muney (2006, July), “Education and Health: Evaluating Theories and Evidence”, NBER Working Paper No. 12352.

Older findings (1999) indicated that age-adjusted mortality rate for high school dropouts age 25-64 was twice as large as those with some college.

Newer findings for the U.S., where human capital has been most studied, indicate that:

  • An additional year of education increased earnings by 10% or $80k in present value over the course of a lifetime.
  • The health implications of investment in human capital are notable.
  • One more year of education led to increased life expectancy by 0.18 years in the U.S. Further,
  • An additional four years of education lowers mortality by 1.8 percentage points; reduces heart disease by 2.16% points and reduces diabetes risk by 1.3% points. The interaction between Human Capital investment and health is therefore clear.

Later in this chapter, we turn to more explicit attention to investment in public health in emerging nations.

Varieties of forms of investments in human k – vocational education

There is richness in experience in Human K formation that is not often recognized. The contribution of Vocational education is an example. Here is an example of what can be done by resourceful people in poor countries for large payoffs for the poor. It is also one good example of effects of foreign aid.

Vietnam: hoa sua vocational training school

The author made annual visits to Vietnam each year over a ten year period from 2004-2014 first to help oversee selection of scholars for a program that places students in PhD programs in science and public health, then as a member of the Board of Trustees of a new University there, Tan Tao, near Ho Chi Minh City.

In 2007, in a restaurant in a hotel in Hanoi, he came across a large group of young men and women being led about by a mentor, explaining food service and hospitality in leading hotels.

These young people turned out to be students from Hoa Sua School— orphans and street children and hearing-impaired young adults ready to place their skills on the job market.

Hou Sua was founded in 1994 by six retired Vietnamese woman who set up a cooking school to transfer their skills. Within a few months they realized that orphaned and troubled youth in Hanoi had zero opportunity for school of any kind , not even vocational training. Scratching together funds, they opened a restaurant featuring Vietnamese and European cooking; a bakery, etc. Earnings from the restaurant financed the school.

Their fruitful work was noticed in 2000 by the French Government. The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs funded new buildings for the school at a new site. Then the school was linked to the Versailles Chamber of Commerce in France, enabling them to offer coveted diplomas called “Certificat d’Aptitude Professionalle.”

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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