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Find a point on the graph we drew in [link] that has a negative x -value.

Possible answers include ( 3 , 7 ) , ( 6 , 9 ) , or ( 9 , 11 ) .

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Graphing a function using transformations

Another option for graphing is to use transformations of the identity function f ( x ) = x . A function may be transformed by a shift up, down, left, or right. A function may also be transformed using a reflection, stretch, or compression.

Vertical stretch or compression

In the equation f ( x ) = m x , the m is acting as the vertical stretch    or compression of the identity function. When m is negative, there is also a vertical reflection of the graph. Notice in [link] that multiplying the equation of f ( x ) = x by m stretches the graph of f by a factor of m units if m > 1 and compresses the graph of f by a factor of m units if 0 < m < 1. This means the larger the absolute value of m , the steeper the slope.

Vertical stretches and compressions and reflections on the function f ( x ) = x .

Vertical shift

In f ( x ) = m x + b , the b acts as the vertical shift    , moving the graph up and down without affecting the slope of the line. Notice in [link] that adding a value of b to the equation of f ( x ) = x shifts the graph of f a total of b units up if b is positive and | b | units down if b is negative.

This graph illustrates vertical shifts of the function f ( x ) = x .

Using vertical stretches or compressions along with vertical shifts is another way to look at identifying different types of linear functions. Although this may not be the easiest way to graph this type of function, it is still important to practice each method.

Given the equation of a linear function, use transformations to graph the linear function in the form f ( x ) = m x + b .

  1. Graph f ( x ) = x .
  2. Vertically stretch or compress the graph by a factor m .
  3. Shift the graph up or down b units.

Graphing by using transformations

Graph f ( x ) = 1 2 x 3 using transformations.

The equation for the function shows that m = 1 2 so the identity function is vertically compressed by 1 2 . The equation for the function also shows that b = −3 so the identity function is vertically shifted down 3 units. First, graph the identity function, and show the vertical compression as in [link] .

The function, y = x , compressed by a factor of 1 2 .

Then show the vertical shift as in [link] .

The function y = 1 2 x , shifted down 3 units.
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Graph f ( x ) = 4 + 2 x , using transformations.

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In [link] , could we have sketched the graph by reversing the order of the transformations?

No. The order of the transformations follows the order of operations. When the function is evaluated at a given input, the corresponding output is calculated by following the order of operations. This is why we performed the compression first. For example, following the order: Let the input be 2.

f (2) = 1 2 (2) 3 = 1 3 = 2

Writing the equation for a function from the graph of a line

Recall that in Linear Functions , we wrote the equation for a linear function from a graph. Now we can extend what we know about graphing linear functions to analyze graphs a little more closely. Begin by taking a look at [link] . We can see right away that the graph crosses the y -axis at the point ( 0 ,  4 ) so this is the y -intercept.

Questions & Answers

find the equation of the line if m=3, and b=-2
Ashley Reply
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method. 2x+y=4
ok, one moment
how do I post your graph for you?
it won't let me send an image?
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x-2
y=mx+b you were already given the 'm' and 'b'. so.. y=3x-2
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line. where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the y-axis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
Fiston Reply
x=-b+_Гb2-(4ac) ______________ 2a
Ahlicia Reply
I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
Carlos Reply
so good
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
strategies to form the general term
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
Mary Reply
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
what is f(x)=
Karim Reply
I don't understand
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
It is the  that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Now it shows, go figure?
what is this?
unknown Reply
i do not understand anything
lol...it gets better
I've been struggling so much through all of this. my final is in four weeks 😭
this book is an excellent resource! have you guys ever looked at the online tutoring? there's one that is called "That Tutor Guy" and he goes over a lot of the concepts
thank you I have heard of him. I should check him out.
is there any question in particular?
I have always struggled with math. I get lost really easy, if you have any advice for that, it would help tremendously.
Sure, are you in high school or college?
Hi, apologies for the delayed response. I'm in college.
how to solve polynomial using a calculator
Ef Reply
So a horizontal compression by factor of 1/2 is the same as a horizontal stretch by a factor of 2, right?
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1), and the lenght of the major axis is 26
Rima Reply
The center is at (3,4) a focus is at (3,-1) and the lenght of the major axis is 26 what will be the answer?
I done know
What kind of answer is that😑?
I had just woken up when i got this message
Can you please help me. Tomorrow is the deadline of my assignment then I don't know how to solve that
i have a question.
how do you find the real and complex roots of a polynomial?
@abdul with delta maybe which is b(square)-4ac=result then the 1st root -b-radical delta over 2a and the 2nd root -b+radical delta over 2a. I am not sure if this was your question but check it up
This is the actual question: Find all roots(real and complex) of the polynomial f(x)=6x^3 + x^2 - 4x + 1
@Nare please let me know if you can solve it.
I have a question
hello guys I'm new here? will you happy with me
The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
Brittany Reply
how do you find the period of a sine graph
Imani Reply
Period =2π if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
if not then how would I find it from a graph
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
I will try that thank u
Case of Equilateral Hyperbola
Jhon Reply
f(x)=4x+2, find f(3)
f(3)=4(3)+2 f(3)=14
pre calc teacher: "Plug in Plug in...smell's good" f(x)=14
Explain why log a x is not defined for a < 0
Baptiste Reply
the sum of any two linear polynomial is what
Esther Reply
Practice Key Terms 5

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