# 3.7 Rational functions  (Page 10/16)

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## Key equations

 Rational Function

## Key concepts

• We can use arrow notation to describe local behavior and end behavior of the toolkit functions $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{{x}^{2}}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See [link] .
• A function that levels off at a horizontal value has a horizontal asymptote. A function can have more than one vertical asymptote. See [link] .
• Application problems involving rates and concentrations often involve rational functions. See [link] .
• The domain of a rational function includes all real numbers except those that cause the denominator to equal zero. See [link] .
• The vertical asymptotes of a rational function will occur where the denominator of the function is equal to zero and the numerator is not zero. See [link] .
• A removable discontinuity might occur in the graph of a rational function if an input causes both numerator and denominator to be zero. See [link] .
• A rational function’s end behavior will mirror that of the ratio of the leading terms of the numerator and denominator functions. See [link] , [link] , [link] , and [link] .
• Graph rational functions by finding the intercepts, behavior at the intercepts and asymptotes, and end behavior. See [link] .
• If a rational function has x -intercepts at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x={x}_{1},{x}_{2},\dots ,{x}_{n},\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ vertical asymptotes at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x={v}_{1},{v}_{2},\dots ,{v}_{m},\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and no then the function can be written in the form
$\begin{array}{l}\begin{array}{l}\hfill \\ f\left(x\right)=a\frac{{\left(x-{x}_{1}\right)}^{{p}_{1}}{\left(x-{x}_{2}\right)}^{{p}_{2}}\cdots {\left(x-{x}_{n}\right)}^{{p}_{n}}}{{\left(x-{v}_{1}\right)}^{{q}_{1}}{\left(x-{v}_{2}\right)}^{{q}_{2}}\cdots {\left(x-{v}_{m}\right)}^{{q}_{n}}}\hfill \end{array}\hfill \end{array}$

## Verbal

What is the fundamental difference in the algebraic representation of a polynomial function and a rational function?

The rational function will be represented by a quotient of polynomial functions.

What is the fundamental difference in the graphs of polynomial functions and rational functions?

If the graph of a rational function has a removable discontinuity, what must be true of the functional rule?

The numerator and denominator must have a common factor.

Can a graph of a rational function have no vertical asymptote? If so, how?

Can a graph of a rational function have no x -intercepts? If so, how?

Yes. The numerator of the formula of the functions would have only complex roots and/or factors common to both the numerator and denominator.

## Algebraic

For the following exercises, find the domain of the rational functions.

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{x-1}{x+2}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{x+1}{{x}^{2}-1}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{{x}^{2}+4}{{x}^{2}-2x-8}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{{x}^{2}+4x-3}{{x}^{4}-5{x}^{2}+4}$

For the following exercises, find the domain, vertical asymptotes, and horizontal asymptotes of the functions.

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{4}{x-1}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{2}{5x+2}$

V.A. at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=–\frac{2}{5};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ H.A. at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Domain is all reals $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\ne –\frac{2}{5}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{x}{{x}^{2}-9}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{x}{{x}^{2}+5x-36}$

V.A. at H.A. at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Domain is all reals

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{3+x}{{x}^{3}-27}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{3x-4}{{x}^{3}-16x}$

V.A. at H.A. at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0;$ Domain is all reals

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{{x}^{2}-1}{{x}^{3}+9{x}^{2}+14x}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{x+5}{{x}^{2}-25}$

V.A. at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=-5;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ H.A. at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=0;\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Domain is all reals $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\ne 5,-5$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{x-4}{x-6}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{4-2x}{3x-1}$

V.A. at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\frac{1}{3};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ H.A. at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=-\frac{2}{3};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Domain is all reals $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\ne \frac{1}{3}.$

For the following exercises, find the x - and y -intercepts for the functions.

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{x+5}{{x}^{2}+4}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{x}{{x}^{2}-x}$

none

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{{x}^{2}+8x+7}{{x}^{2}+11x+30}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{{x}^{2}+x+6}{{x}^{2}-10x+24}$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{94-2{x}^{2}}{3{x}^{2}-12}$

For the following exercises, describe the local and end behavior of the functions.

can you not take the square root of a negative number
No because a negative times a negative is a positive. No matter what you do you can never multiply the same number by itself and end with a negative
lurverkitten
Actually you can. you get what's called an Imaginary number denoted by i which is represented on the complex plane. The reply above would be correct if we were still confined to the "real" number line.
Liam
Suppose P= {-3,1,3} Q={-3,-2-1} and R= {-2,2,3}.what is the intersection
can I get some pretty basic questions
In what way does set notation relate to function notation
Ama
is precalculus needed to take caculus
It depends on what you already know. Just test yourself with some precalculus questions. If you find them easy, you're good to go.
Spiro
the solution doesn't seem right for this problem
what is the domain of f(x)=x-4/x^2-2x-15 then
x is different from -5&3
Seid
All real x except 5 and - 3
Spiro
***youtu.be/ESxOXfh2Poc
Loree
how to prroved cos⁴x-sin⁴x= cos²x-sin²x are equal
Don't think that you can.
Elliott
By using some imaginary no.
Tanmay
how do you provided cos⁴x-sin⁴x = cos²x-sin²x are equal
What are the question marks for?
Elliott
Someone should please solve it for me Add 2over ×+3 +y-4 over 5 simplify (×+a)with square root of two -×root 2 all over a multiply 1over ×-y{(×-y)(×+y)} over ×y
For the first question, I got (3y-2)/15 Second one, I got Root 2 Third one, I got 1/(y to the fourth power) I dont if it's right cause I can barely understand the question.
Is under distribute property, inverse function, algebra and addition and multiplication function; so is a combined question
Abena
find the equation of the line if m=3, and b=-2
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method. 2x+y=4
Ashley
how
Wargod
what?
John
ok, one moment
UriEl
how do I post your graph for you?
UriEl
it won't let me send an image?
UriEl
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x-2
UriEl
y=mx+b you were already given the 'm' and 'b'. so.. y=3x-2
Tommy
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
Abena
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line. where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the y-axis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
Tommy
thanks Tommy
Nimo
0=3x-2 2=3x x=3/2 then . y=3/2X-2 I think
Given
co ordinates for x x=0,(-2,0) x=1,(1,1) x=2,(2,4)
neil
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
Where do the rays point?
Spiro
x=-b+_Гb2-(4ac) ______________ 2a
I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
so good
abdikarin
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
strategies to form the general term
carlmark
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
Mike
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
William
what is f(x)=
I don't understand
Joe
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Thomas
Now it shows, go figure?
Thomas