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We are familiar with basic algebraic operations. These basic mathematical operations, however, are not valid in all contexts. For example, algebraic operation such as addition has different details, when operated on vectors. Clearly, we expect that these operations will also be not same in the case of sets – which are collections and not individual elements.

Nevertheless, set operations bear resemblance to algebraic operation. For example, when we combine (not add) two sets, then the operation involved is called “union”. We can see that there is resemblance of the intent of addition, subtraction etc in the case of sets also.

Venn diagrams

Venn diagrams are pictorial representation of sets/subsets and relationship that the sets/subsets have among them. It helps us to analyze relationship and carry out valid set operations in a relatively easier manner vis – a – vis symbolic representation.

Universal set

Universal set is the largest set among collection of sets. Importantly, it is not the collection of everything as might be conjectured by the nomenclature. For example, "R", is universal set comprising of all real numbers. The rational numbers, integers and natural numbers are its subset. In other consideration, we can call integers as universal set. In that case, sets such as {1,2,3}, prime numbers, even numbers, odd numbers are subset of the universal set of integers.

The universal set is pictorially represented by a region enclosed within a rectangle on Venn diagram. For illustration, consider the universal set of English alphabets and universal set of first 10 natural numbers as shown in the top row of the figure

Universal set

The universal set is represented by a region enclosed within a rectangle.

Many times, however, we may not be required to list elements of a universal set. In such case, we represent the universal set simply by a rectangle and the symbol for universal set, “U”, in the corner. This is particularly helpful, where number of elements in universal set are very large.

The subsets of the universal set are represented by closed curves – usually circles. The subset of vowels (V) is shown here within the circle with the listing of elements. Note that we have not listed all the alphabets for universal set and used the symbol “U” in the corner only.

Subset

The subset of the universal set is represented by a closed curve – usually circle.

Union of sets

Union works on two operands, each of which is a set. The operation is denoted by symbol " ". Now, the question is : what do we expect when two sets are combined? Clearly, we need to enlist all the elements of two sets in the resulting set.

Union of two sets
The union of sets “A” and “B” is a third set, which consists all the elements of two sets.

In symbol,

A B = { x : x A o r x B }

The word “or” in the set builder form defining union is important. It means that the element “x” belongs to either “A” or “B”. The element may belong to both sets (common to two sets), but not necessarily. We can, therefore, infer that union set consists of :

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
What is power set
Satyabrata Reply
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Sneha Reply
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Sneha Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Functions. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10464/1.64
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