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  • Describe a plane vector, using correct notation.
  • Perform basic vector operations (scalar multiplication, addition, subtraction).
  • Express a vector in component form.
  • Explain the formula for the magnitude of a vector.
  • Express a vector in terms of unit vectors.
  • Give two examples of vector quantities.

When describing the movement of an airplane in flight, it is important to communicate two pieces of information: the direction in which the plane is traveling and the plane’s speed. When measuring a force, such as the thrust of the plane’s engines, it is important to describe not only the strength of that force, but also the direction in which it is applied. Some quantities, such as or force, are defined in terms of both size (also called magnitude ) and direction. A quantity that has magnitude and direction is called a vector    . In this text, we denote vectors by boldface letters, such as v .

Definition

A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction.

Vector representation

A vector in a plane is represented by a directed line segment (an arrow). The endpoints of the segment are called the initial point    and the terminal point    of the vector. An arrow from the initial point to the terminal point indicates the direction of the vector. The length of the line segment represents its magnitude    . We use the notation v to denote the magnitude of the vector v . A vector with an initial point and terminal point that are the same is called the zero vector    , denoted 0 . The zero vector is the only vector without a direction, and by convention can be considered to have any direction convenient to the problem at hand.

Vectors with the same magnitude and direction are called equivalent vectors. We treat equivalent vectors as equal, even if they have different initial points. Thus, if v and w are equivalent, we write

v = w .

Definition

Vectors are said to be equivalent vectors    if they have the same magnitude and direction.

The arrows in [link] (b) are equivalent. Each arrow has the same length and direction. A closely related concept is the idea of parallel vectors. Two vectors are said to be parallel if they have the same or opposite directions. We explore this idea in more detail later in the chapter. A vector is defined by its magnitude and direction, regardless of where its initial point is located.

This figure has two images. The first is labeled “a” and has a line segment representing vector v. The line segment begins at the initial point and goes to the terminal point. There is an arrowhead at the terminal point. The second image is labeled “b” and is five vectors, each labeled v sub 1, v sub 2, v sub 3, v sub 4, v sub 5. They all are pointing in the same direction and have the same length.
(a) A vector is represented by a directed line segment from its initial point to its terminal point. (b) Vectors v 1 through v 5 are equivalent.

The use of boldface, lowercase letters to name vectors is a common representation in print, but there are alternative notations. When writing the name of a vector by hand, for example, it is easier to sketch an arrow over the variable than to simulate boldface type: v . When a vector has initial point P and terminal point Q , the notation P Q is useful because it indicates the direction and location of the vector.

Sketching vectors

Sketch a vector in the plane from initial point P ( 1 , 1 ) to terminal point Q ( 8 , 5 ) .

See [link] . Because the vector goes from point P to point Q , we name it P Q .

This figure is a graph of the first quadrant. There is a line segment beginning at the ordered pair (1, 1). Also, this point is labeled “P.” The line segment ends at the ordered pair (8, 5) and is labeled “Q.” The line segment is labeled “PQ.”
The vector with initial point ( 1 , 1 ) and terminal point ( 8 , 5 ) is named P Q .
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Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 3. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11966/1.2
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