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ABall.updateState() is abstract because at the abstraction level of ABall , one only knows that the ball will definitely do something with regards to modifying (perhaps) its internal field values(its "state"). Each subclass will do it differently however. The StraightBall will do nothing in its updateState method because a ball with a constant (unchanging) velocity will travel in a straight line. Remember, doing nothing is doing something ! The CurveBall 's updateState method uses sines and cosines to turn the velocity by a fixed (though randomly chosen) angle at every update event. You can imagine that other possible subclassses could do things such as randomly change the velocity or change the radius of the ball or change the color of the ball.

There is no code in the entire Ballworld system that explicitly references any of the concrete ABall subclasses. All of the code runs at the level of abstraction of an abstract ball. The differences in behavior of the various balls made on the screen using the different concrete subclasses is strictly due to polymorphism . New types of balls can be added to the system without recompiling any of the existing code. In fact, new types of balls can be added without even stopping the Ballworld program!

Abstract classes vs. interfaces

Subclasses have a different relationship between interfaces and abstract superclasses. A subclass that implements an interface is saying simply that it "acts like" that specified by the interface. The class makes no statements however about fundamentally what it actually is. An actor implements a fiercesome alien from a distant plantet in one movie and a fickle feline in another. But an actor is actually neither. Just because the actor protrayed a interplanetary alien, doesn't mean that the actor fundamentally possessed all the abilities of such an alien. All it says is that in so far the context in which the actor was utilized as the alien, the actor did implement all the necessary behaviors of the alien.

A subclass is fundamentally an example of its superclass. A subclass automatically contains all the behaviors of its superclass because it fundamentally is the superclass. The subclass doesn't have to implement the behaviors of its superclass, it already has them. An actor is a human and by that right, automatically possesses all that which makes a human: one head, two arms, 10 toes, etc. Note that this is true even if the abstract class has 100% abstract methods--it still enforces a strict taxonomical hierarchy.

implements is about behaving , extends is about being .

Variant vs. invariant behaviors

A crucial observation is that the the Ballworld code that manages the GUI ( BallGUI ) and the ball management ( BallControl , Dispatcher , etc.) only deal with the abstract ball, ABall . That is, they represent invariant behavior at the abstract ball level. The display, creation and managment of the balls is independent of the particular kinds of concrete balls that is being handled. The main Ballworld framework can thus handle any type of ABall , past, present and future.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of object-oriented programming. OpenStax CNX. May 10, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10213/1.37
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