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A different effective length for frames

Effective length can be found easily on isolated columns by using Table C-C2 in the Commentary of the SpecificationSection of the Manual . However, this table will not work very well with rigid frames. Columns ina frame are not independent, they are continuous. The buckling of one member will affect all the members aroundit. Therefore, the end conditions necessary for using Table C-C2 are not sufficient. It is important to account for thedegree of restraint by connecting members of a column in a frame.

A frame can be unbraced or braced, where unbraced means horizontal displacement in possible. A frame can also havesidesway.

"The rotational restraint provided by beams, or girders, at the end of a column is a function of rotational stiffnessesof the members intersecting at the joint." LRFD Steel Design Second Edition -- William T. Segui, 1999. The restraint is proportional to E I L .

G E c I c L c E g I g L g I c L c I g L g

K , then depends on the ratio of column stiffness to the girder stiffness at each end.

G and k relationships

K is relatively small when a slender column is connected to a girder of large crosssection. This is because the girder effectively prevents rotation and acts as a fixed end. The G value for this case is rather small too. K (or G ) is relatively large when the ends of very stiff columns are connected to ratherflexible beams. This is because the ends of the column can more freely rotate and approach the pinned condition.

"The relationship between G and K has been quantified in the Jackson-Mooreland Alignment Charts (Johnston, 1796),which are reproduced in Figure C-C2.2 in the Commentary. To obtain a value of K from one of the nomograms, first calculate the value of G at each end of the column, letting one value be G A and the other be G B . Connect G A and G B with a straight line, and read the value of K on the middle scale. The effective length factor obtained in this manner is withrespect to the axis of bending, which is the axis perpendicular to the plane of the frame. A separateanalysis must be made for buckling about the other axis. Normally the beam-to-column connections in this directionwill not transmit moment, sidesway is prevented by bracing, and K can be taken as 1.0.

Value of g for pinned support

G can be taken as 10 at a pinned support because at a pin connection, the situation isjust like a very stiff column attached to infinitely flexible girders. This means the girders have zerostiffness. Then, the ratio of column stiffness to girder stiffness would be infinite for a perfectly frictionlesshinge. This end condition can only be approximated in practice, so the discussion accompanying the alignment chartrecommends that G be taken as 10.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
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What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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