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In the third collegial phase, the participants committed to the proposed solution attempt to persuadeless active members to accept the compromise reached during the political stage. The solutions are tested against criteria ofacceptability and feasibility and may result in minor changes. Eventually this process should lead to agreed policy outcomes and adegree of commitment to the decision.

The final phase is the formal or bureaucratic stage during which agreed policy may be subject to modification inthe light of administrative considerations. The outcome of this period is a policy which is both legitimate and operationallysatisfactory (Bush, 2003, p. 193).

Theodossin (1983, p. 88) links the subjective to the formal or systems model using an analytical continuum. Heargues that a systems perspective is the most appropriate way of explaining national developments while individual and subunitactivities may be understood best by utilizing the individual meanings of participants:

Theodossin’s analysis is interesting and plausible. It helps to delineate the contribution of the formal andsubjective models to educational management theory. In focusing on these two perspectives, however, it necessarily ignores thecontribution of other approaches, including the cultural model, which has not been incorporated into any of the syntheses appliedto education

The Enderud (1980), and Davies and Morgan (1983), models are valuable in suggesting a plausible sequentiallink between four of the major theories. However, it is certainly possible to postulate different sets of relationships between themodels. For example, a collegial approach may become political as participants engage in conflict instead of seeking to achieveconsensus. It is perhaps significant that there have been few attempts to integrate the management models since the 1980s.

Using theory to improve practice

The six models present different approaches to the management of education and the syntheses indicate a few ofthe possible relationships between them. However, the ultimate test of theory is whether it improves practice. There should be littledoubt about the potential for theory to inform practice. School managers generally engage in a process of implicit theorising indeciding how to formulate policy or respond to events. Facts cannot be left to speak for themselves. They require the explanatoryframework of theory in order to ascertain their real meaning.

The multiplicity of competing models means that no single theory is sufficient to guide practice. Rather,managers need to develop“conceptual pluralism”(Bolman&Deal, 1984, p. 4) to be able to select the most appropriate approach toparticular issues and avoid a unidimensional stance:“Managers in all organizations . . . can increase their effectiveness and theirfreedom through the use of multiple vantage points. To be locked into a single path is likely to produce error andself-imprisonment”(p. 4).

Conceptual pluralism is similar to the notion of contingent leadership. Both recognize the diverse nature ofeducational contexts and the advantages of adapting leadership styles to the particular situation rather than adopting a“one size fits all”stance. Appreciation of the various models is the starting point for effective action. It provides a“conceptual tool-kit”for the manager to deploy as appropriate in addressing problems and developing strategy.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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