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In the third collegial phase, the participants committed to the proposed solution attempt to persuadeless active members to accept the compromise reached during the political stage. The solutions are tested against criteria ofacceptability and feasibility and may result in minor changes. Eventually this process should lead to agreed policy outcomes and adegree of commitment to the decision.

The final phase is the formal or bureaucratic stage during which agreed policy may be subject to modification inthe light of administrative considerations. The outcome of this period is a policy which is both legitimate and operationallysatisfactory (Bush, 2003, p. 193).

Theodossin (1983, p. 88) links the subjective to the formal or systems model using an analytical continuum. Heargues that a systems perspective is the most appropriate way of explaining national developments while individual and subunitactivities may be understood best by utilizing the individual meanings of participants:

Theodossin’s analysis is interesting and plausible. It helps to delineate the contribution of the formal andsubjective models to educational management theory. In focusing on these two perspectives, however, it necessarily ignores thecontribution of other approaches, including the cultural model, which has not been incorporated into any of the syntheses appliedto education

The Enderud (1980), and Davies and Morgan (1983), models are valuable in suggesting a plausible sequentiallink between four of the major theories. However, it is certainly possible to postulate different sets of relationships between themodels. For example, a collegial approach may become political as participants engage in conflict instead of seeking to achieveconsensus. It is perhaps significant that there have been few attempts to integrate the management models since the 1980s.

Using theory to improve practice

The six models present different approaches to the management of education and the syntheses indicate a few ofthe possible relationships between them. However, the ultimate test of theory is whether it improves practice. There should be littledoubt about the potential for theory to inform practice. School managers generally engage in a process of implicit theorising indeciding how to formulate policy or respond to events. Facts cannot be left to speak for themselves. They require the explanatoryframework of theory in order to ascertain their real meaning.

The multiplicity of competing models means that no single theory is sufficient to guide practice. Rather,managers need to develop“conceptual pluralism”(Bolman&Deal, 1984, p. 4) to be able to select the most appropriate approach toparticular issues and avoid a unidimensional stance:“Managers in all organizations . . . can increase their effectiveness and theirfreedom through the use of multiple vantage points. To be locked into a single path is likely to produce error andself-imprisonment”(p. 4).

Conceptual pluralism is similar to the notion of contingent leadership. Both recognize the diverse nature ofeducational contexts and the advantages of adapting leadership styles to the particular situation rather than adopting a“one size fits all”stance. Appreciation of the various models is the starting point for effective action. It provides a“conceptual tool-kit”for the manager to deploy as appropriate in addressing problems and developing strategy.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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