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<<setiosflags(ios::oct)<<15<<endl

<<"The hexadecimal (base 16) value of 15 is "

<<setiosflags(ios::hex)<<15<<endl;

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

The decimal (base 10) value of 15 is 15

The octal (base 8) value of 15 is 17

The hexadecimal (base 16) value of 15 is f

To designate an octal integer constant, the number must have a leading 0 . Hexadecimal number are denoted using a leading 0x .

Example

// Octal and hexadecimal integer constant

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

cout<<"The decimal value of 025 is "<<025<<endl

<<"The decimal value of 0x37 is "<<0x37<<endl;

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

The decimal value of 025 is 21

The decimal value of 0x37 is 55

Using mathematical library functions

Although addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are easily accomplished using C++’s arithmetic operators, no such operators exist for finding the square root of a number or determining trigonometric values. To facilitate such calculations, C++ provides standard library functions that can be included in a program.

Functions are normally called by writing the name of the function, followed by a left parenthesis, followed by the argument (or a comma-separated list of arguments) of the function, followed by a right parenthesis. For example, a programmer desiring to calculate and print the square root of 900.0 might write:

cout<<sqrt(900.0);

When this statement is executed, the math library function sqrt is called to calculate the square root of the number contained in the parentheses (900.0). The number 900.0 is the argument of the sqrt function. The preceding statement would print 30. The sqrt function takes an argument of type double and returns a result of type double.

If your program uses mathematic function sqrt(), it should have the preprocessor command #include<math.h> in the beginning of the program. This makes a mathematical library accessible. Below are some commonly used mathematical functions provided in C++.

Mathematical functions

Except abs(a), the functions all take an argument of type double and return a value of type double.

Example

// this program calculates the area of a triangle

// given its three sides

#include<iostream.h>

#include<math.h>

int main()

{

double a,b,c, s;

a = 3;

b = 4;

c = 5;

s = (a+b+c)/2.0;

area = sqrt(s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c));

cout<<"The area of the triangle = "<<area<<endl;

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

The area of the triangle = 6.0

Casts

We have already seen the conversion of an operand’s data type within mixed-mode expressions and across assignment operators. In addition to these implicit data type conversions that are automatically made within mixed-mode expressions and assignment, C++ also provides for explicit user-specified type conversion. This method of type conversion is called casting . The word cast is used in the sense of “casting into a mold.”

Casting or type casting , copies the value contained in a variable of one data type into a variable of another data type.

The C++ syntax for casting variables is

variable = new_type( old_variable);

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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