# 0.6 Solid state and superconductors  (Page 4/9)

 Page 5 / 9

The TAs will deduct points from your lab grade if the kits are not returned with all pieces present and properly organized.

## Use of the solid state model kit:

The following instructions are abbreviated. Please consult the instruction manual found in the kits for more details if you need assistance in building any of the structures given. Note that some of the model kits are older than others and the manuals’and page numbers may not correspond.

There are four major part types in each model kit:

*2 off-white, thick plastic template bases with holes (one with a circle, the other a semicircle);

*cardboard templates (about 20 labeled A-T);

*metal rods (to be inserted in the holes to support the plastic spheres)

*plastic spheres in 4 sizes and colors.

The spheres can represent atoms, ions, or even molecules depending upon the kind of solid it is.

You will be given directions for the use of a specific base, template, placement of the rods, selection of spheres, and arrangement of the spheres as you progress. The ICE model kits make use of Z-diagrams to represent how the structure will be built up. Each type of sphere will be numbered with the z layer in which it belongs.

As we build each structure in three-dimensional space, we will be drawing figures to represent the unit cell structures. Each level or layer of atoms, ions, or molecules in a unit cell can be represented by a two-dimensional base, that is, a square, hexagon, parallelogram, etc.

To draw the Z-diagrams the bottom layer is referred to as z=0. We then proceed layer by layer up the unit cell until we reach a layer which is identical to the z=0 layer. This is z=1. Since z=0 and z=1 are identical by definition, we do not have to draw z=1, although you might want to do so as you are learning how to work with solid state figures. The layers between top and bottom are given z designations according to their positions in the crystal. So, for example, a unit cell with 4 layers (including z=0 and z=1) would also have z=0.33 (1/3) and z=0.67 (2/3).

Each solid-state kit has two types of bases (one using rectangular coordinates, the other using polar coordinates) indicated by a full circle or semicircle, or by color (yellow and green.)

You will first build structures that involve only one type of atom, as you would find in crystalline solids of the elements, especially that of the metals. Then you will examine ionic compounds which are known as binary solids. Binary solids are those composed of only two types of atoms, such as sodium chloride or calcium fluoride.

If time permits there is an extra credit exercise you can do. You may not do this extra credit exercise until the report form has been completed nor may you receive credit for the extra credit assignment unless you fully complete the report form.

## Working groups and teams

You and your lab partner will constitute a group. Each group will receive one model kit and two groups will work together as a team. Your TA will assign you the structures you have to do, and at the end each team will discuss the structures assigned on front of the class. The number of teams and the assignments the TA will give you will be decided based on the number of students in a particular laboratory session. The laboratory is divided for six teams (A-F)

#### Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

### Read also:

#### Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Gen chem lab. OpenStax CNX. Oct 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10452/1.51
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Gen chem lab' conversation and receive update notifications?

 By By