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Back to Europe: A.D. 201 to 300

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

At the end of the century Crete and most of the Cyclades passed from Roman to Byzantine control. (Ref. 38 )


Greece remained an integral part of the Byzantine Empire and in this period was intimately connected with the activities of the upper Balkans. After the Visigoths were victorious at Adrianople in 378 they subsequently tried to settle in Greece (396-399) but after the Athenians paid them a large ransom, they wandered back north and west toward Italy.

Upper balkans (please also see russia and asia minor, this chapter)

There was much migratory activity and inter-tribe fighting in the Balkan area. The Ostrogoths had suffered a military defeat on the Dniepner by the Huns and as they retreated westward they in turn pushed the Visigoths ahead of them. One group of the latter, under Athanaric, went on into Pannonia (Hungary) while a second group under Fritigens appeared on the lower Danube and asked Emperor Valen's permission to enter Dacia. The request was granted but famine in 377 resulted in the Goths raiding south.

Joined by some Ostrogoths, some federati

Goth mercenaries previously with imperial units
, renegrades and later even some Huns and Alani, they crossed the Danube in 378, killed Valens and annihilated two-thirds of his troops. The Goths then ravaged the Balkans from end to end. Separate peace treaties with various Gothic groups were forged between 380 and 381 and many other Goths individually or in groups eventually joined Roman forces. The original Visigothic troops had been thinned by epidemics and desertions. In 384 or 385 Huns crossed the frozen Danube and raided down the west shore of the Black Sea and in 386 struck both east and west of the Goths' area on the Danube. The Ostrogoths defied their Hun overlords, striking violently in great numbers from the east, but even so, by 392 the Huns were raiding through the Balkans, not under a single king, but as individual tribes.

At the end of the century there were three powerful groups prowling through the Balkans. We have mentioned in an earlier paragraph that as the dead Theodocius' troops returned from Italy they raided through this area up to the walls of Constantinople. The Visigoths, after raiding Greece went to Epirus on the Adriatic and renewed an alliance with the eastern Roman government, and as just noted above, the Huns were foraging into the area from the east. (Ref. 229 , 127 )

Although a proto-Germanic tongue was probably spoken simultaneously with Sanskrit, early Greek and other early languages, the Gothic translation of the Bible by Bishop Ulfilas in this century is the earliest satisfactory record of a Germanic language. Having been taken to Constantinople in his younger years as a hostage, he mastered Latin and Greek, invented a special alphabet on the Greek pattern and returned to his Visigothic people on the lower Danube preaching the Arian creed which then spread throughout the Germanic tribes. His Bible is virtually the only source of knowledge of the original Gothic language which sired all the Germanic tongues, including Runic. (Ref. 168 )

Questions & Answers

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Economics is derived from the word Oikonomia which means management of household things. Thus, Economics is a study of household things with the constrains of allocating scare resources.
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Ceteris paribus - Literally, "other things being equal"; usually used in economics to indicate that all variables except the ones specified are assumed not to change.
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Fedric Wilson Taylor also define management as the act of knowing what to do and seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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