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Europe

Back to Europe: A.D. 201 to 300

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

At the end of the century Crete and most of the Cyclades passed from Roman to Byzantine control. (Ref. 38 )

Greece

Greece remained an integral part of the Byzantine Empire and in this period was intimately connected with the activities of the upper Balkans. After the Visigoths were victorious at Adrianople in 378 they subsequently tried to settle in Greece (396-399) but after the Athenians paid them a large ransom, they wandered back north and west toward Italy.

Upper balkans (please also see russia and asia minor, this chapter)

There was much migratory activity and inter-tribe fighting in the Balkan area. The Ostrogoths had suffered a military defeat on the Dniepner by the Huns and as they retreated westward they in turn pushed the Visigoths ahead of them. One group of the latter, under Athanaric, went on into Pannonia (Hungary) while a second group under Fritigens appeared on the lower Danube and asked Emperor Valen's permission to enter Dacia. The request was granted but famine in 377 resulted in the Goths raiding south.

Joined by some Ostrogoths, some federati

Goth mercenaries previously with imperial units
, renegrades and later even some Huns and Alani, they crossed the Danube in 378, killed Valens and annihilated two-thirds of his troops. The Goths then ravaged the Balkans from end to end. Separate peace treaties with various Gothic groups were forged between 380 and 381 and many other Goths individually or in groups eventually joined Roman forces. The original Visigothic troops had been thinned by epidemics and desertions. In 384 or 385 Huns crossed the frozen Danube and raided down the west shore of the Black Sea and in 386 struck both east and west of the Goths' area on the Danube. The Ostrogoths defied their Hun overlords, striking violently in great numbers from the east, but even so, by 392 the Huns were raiding through the Balkans, not under a single king, but as individual tribes.

At the end of the century there were three powerful groups prowling through the Balkans. We have mentioned in an earlier paragraph that as the dead Theodocius' troops returned from Italy they raided through this area up to the walls of Constantinople. The Visigoths, after raiding Greece went to Epirus on the Adriatic and renewed an alliance with the eastern Roman government, and as just noted above, the Huns were foraging into the area from the east. (Ref. 229 , 127 )

Although a proto-Germanic tongue was probably spoken simultaneously with Sanskrit, early Greek and other early languages, the Gothic translation of the Bible by Bishop Ulfilas in this century is the earliest satisfactory record of a Germanic language. Having been taken to Constantinople in his younger years as a hostage, he mastered Latin and Greek, invented a special alphabet on the Greek pattern and returned to his Visigothic people on the lower Danube preaching the Arian creed which then spread throughout the Germanic tribes. His Bible is virtually the only source of knowledge of the original Gothic language which sired all the Germanic tongues, including Runic. (Ref. 168 )

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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