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NOTE: Insert 21: GREECE DURING THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR

Upper balkans

There was culture in Thrace and in the Greek colonies along the coast of the Black Sea. Many cities had developed in Macedonia and by 450 B.C., under the reign of Alexander I, a veneer of Hellenic civilization had appeared on the ruling classes of this area. (Ref. 218 )

Italy

Italy at this time was a motley of independent tribes and towns. There was still a northern Etruscan presence near the Po River, with various cities there. Virgil, the Roman poet of part Etruscan origin, describes his home of Mantua as composed of three races which apparently included Etruscans, Venetians and Umbrians, the latter two being Indo-European Italic speakers.

In Etruria, itself, in addition to Tarquinii and Caere, which we discussed at some length in the last chapters, we should now discuss Vulci, the city-state just north of Tarquinii.

In this 5th century B.C. it showed a marked Athenian influence, with the Athenian "black-figure" pottery flooding the community. No less than 40% of all Attic pottery that has been excavated in Etruria is from Vulci. But this city's real claim to fame was its bronze-work, with multiple cast bronze statues which were in turn exported afar, including back to Greece. It is possible that Servius Tullius who ruled as King of Rome after Tarquinius Priscus, was a Vulcentine with the original name of Mastarna. (Ref. 75 ) Early in the century the Etruscans, at the height of their power and allied with the Carthaginians, were at war with the Sicilian Greeks of Syracuse and their King Hiero 1. (Please see also 1, B, this chapter), and in a great naval battle off Cumae about 474 B.C. the Etruscan navy was destroyed. They were then forced to withdraw from Campania and this secured the liberation of Rome from Etruscan control. Even then, Cumae and Capua alike were still subjected to several years (430 - 423 B.C.) of fighting some hard-nosed mountain, Italic-speaking tribes, the Samnites. It was the descendants of the latter who eventually forged a new Campanian nation. In addition to the resistance of the Campanian Greeks the city-state of Caere was further damaged by an attack by sixty Syracusan warships which plundered harbors on the mainland and overran Elba and Corsica. (Ref. 75 )

Up to this point Rome had actually only controlled an area of about nineteen by nineteen miles, but they soon defeated the Sabines and expanded into their area. In spite of the smallness of Rome, this was the period of the Roman Republic. At the beginning (494 B.C.) there was the first "secession" in which the plebes withdrew from Rome to form their own city, forcing concessions from the patricians such as the right to have officers of their own, tribunes and aediles. In the Republic there were four classes of citizens; the Patricians, consisting of the superior clans which supplied Rome with generals, consuls and laws for five centuries (the Mantii, Valerii, Aemili, Cornelii, Fabii, Horatii, Claudii and Julii); the Equites, or business men; the Plebs, or commons; and finally the Slaves. The Roman Senate consisted of 300 members made up of clan heads from three basic tribes, although occasionally an Equite got into that body. As a result of a political battle for better laws for the Plebs, a commission was sent to Greece to study the legislations of Solon and other lawmakers and on their return, ten men (decemviri) formed a new code call "the Twelve Tables" which were approved by the Assembly and became the first written form of a legal structure of Rome (450 B.C.), serving as the basic law for the next 900 years. In 443 B.C. appeared the institution of censorship and in 432 the first law designed to check electoral corruption was passed. At the end of the century the long war of Rome against the Etruscan city, Veii in Tuscany was started. At the same time the Gauls descended again from the north and the Etruscans were squeezed in the middle. (Ref. 48 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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