# 0.2 Tg physical science - chapter contexts

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An overview of the chapter contexts for our Grade 10 Physical Science WebBooks.

## Units

This chapter explains the huge role measuring plays in the Physical Sciences and the importance of units. Examples given illustrate that experiment and observation becomes meaningful when expressed in a quantity and its particular unit. The SI unit system with its seven base SI units is introduced. Details are provided for the correct way to write units and their abbreviations. For example: the SI unit for length is meter (lower case) and the abbreviation is “m”, while the volume of a liquid is measured in litre “ℓ”. When a unit is named after a person, then the symbol is a capital letter. The ‘newton’ is the unit of force named after Sir Isaac Newton and its symbol is “N”. When writing a combination of base SI units, place a dot (·) between the base units used. Metres per second is correctly written as $“m·{s}^{-1}”.$

Currently learners are expected to round off correctly to 2 decimal places. The text in the learner's book illustrates the big difference to the answer when rounding off digits during a calculation. As an educator you often need to remind your learners only to round off the final answer. Learners also need to be able to write and translate data into the correct units and dimensions using scientific notation. To develop learners’ skills to do conversions and calculations use the table of unit prefixes, conversion diagrams and worked examples.

## What are the objects around us made of?

Learners will learn that all objects are made of matter, and that different objects are made of different types of matter or materials. These different properties will be explained by studying material’s microscopic structure (the small parts that make up the material). We will explore the smallest building blocks of matter, atoms, their unique properties and how they interact and combine with other atoms.

Revision of concepts related to molecules, their molecular and empirical formulae, and models to represent compounds will assure that all learners have the necessary prior knowledge to understand new concepts.

## Classification of matter

To link to Grade 9, matter is classified according to its different properties. The diagram below summarises the sequence in which content, concepts and skills are developed in this chapter.

Diagram: the Classification of Matter

The terms: mixture, heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures are defined and explained in a learner-friendly way. To clarify concepts and support understanding, a lot of interesting examples linked to everyday lifestyle are given. For example: a pizza is described as a heterogeneous mixture, as each slice of pizza will probably differ from the next one, because the toppings like cheese, tomato, mushrooms and peppers are not evenly distributed and are visible. Ways to separate mixtures is extended by explaining the dialysis process and how centrifugation is used to separate cells and plasma in blood.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Purification of water by natural plants and wetlands