# 3.8 Understanding the context and vocabulary of probability

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## Understanding the context and vocabulary of probability

ACTIVITY 1

To understand the context and vocabulary of probability

[LO 11.2, 5.1, 5.6]

1 The following very ordinary statements all deal with probability – but they are not all perfectly accurate. With your partner, study them and decide what is left unsaid, or what information you need to be able to evaluate them. Write down the results of your discussion.

For example : “The sun will come up tomorrow morning” really means: “If I go by the fact that the sun has come up every morning of my life, I am very certain that it will happen again tomorrow morning.”

1.1 If I toss a coin, there is a 50:50 chance that it will land tails up.

1.2 Kevin is certain to phone me tonight.

1.3 It is virtually impossible to win the lottery.

1.4 If you have a positive HIV test, then you will die of AIDS.

1.5 You are more likely to die of a spider-bite than of a lightning strike.

1.6 If you are told that every raffle ticket has two numbers, you have a double chance to win.

1.7 If you don’t play the Lotto, you are certain not to win.

1.8 In a room of 24 people, you are likely to find two people with the same birthday.

1.9 There is a 25% chance of rain tomorrow.

1.10 You are as likely to get a three as a four when you throw a die.

2 Refer to the following scale

• The likelihood of something happening must lie somewhere along this line of probabilities. Nothing can be less likely than 0%, and nothing can be more likely than 100%. If you throw an ordinary six-sided die, then it is certain (meaning 100% on the above scale) that the number it shows will be either 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. It is impossible (0%) that it will show a 7. We can’t always be sure exactly where a certain probability lies, but in some cases the probability can be worked out exactly.
• Write down at which percentage of the scale above each of the following statements falls; afterwards discuss your answers with your partner.

2.1 I will throw a six with an ordinary die.

2.2 If you pick a Smartie with your eyes closed, it will be a red one.

2.3 I will visit a friend next weekend.

2.4 The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are equally likely from throwing a die.

2.5 I will meet the president of South Africa someday.

2.6 I will stay the same height for the next year.

2.7 I will get a cold next winter.

2.8 I will be the president of South Africa someday.

• How was the quality of my work now?
• Here is the same scale with other values:

• These same probabilities are often written as a simplified fraction. Note that the line goes from 0 (impossible) to 1 (certain). We can’t have probabilities that are greater than 1 – nothing can be more likely than absolutely certain! In other words, these probabilities can’t be fractions with a larger numerator than denominator.
• Let’s look at the die again to make it clear how it works. The dice can show one of six numbers, but the chance that it will be a six is only one out of six chances. Look at it this way: if six friends throw one dice, and each chooses a different number from 1 to 6, then it is certain that one will be right! So, each of them has only 1 of the 6 chances to be right. The fraction (the probability) is $\frac{1}{6}$ , which lies between 10% and 20% on the scale.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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