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One of Italy's great men, Galileo Galilei, astronomer, experimental physicist and mathematician was throttled by the Inquisition, still being promoted by the Church. The outstanding anatomist of the age was Marcello Malpighi, born at Bologna and teacher of medicine there for 25 years. His descriptions of capillaries, Malpighian tufts and corpuscles are only a few of his multitude of important anatomical discoveries. (Ref. 222 , 53 , 125 , 213 )

The island of Sicily remained rooted to the past, pretty well untouched by the machinations of politics and commercialization seen in the market society of most of Europe. (Ref. 292 ) (Continue on page 947)

Central europe

Most of central Europe was still a part of the Holy Roman Empire, which, however, consisted of several more or less separate parts. First there was a loosely bound union of almost completely independent German states, seven in number, each ruled by an "Elector" and nominally subject to the Habsburg emperor, who was routinely elected by those Electors. The Protestants of the north gave no support militarily, unless the emperor paid for it. Secondly, there was the true Habsburg Empire, which consisted of the Archduchy of Austria, the Kingdom of Bohemia-Moravia, Silesia, the Kingdom of Hungary and other Balkan territories conquered from the Turks. The Habsburgs also had claims to the throne of Spain with all its possessions in Europe. (Ref. 131 ) But from 1618 to 1648 the terrible Thirty Years War raged, disrupting the entire continent. This was basically a war of mercenary soldiers, and in lieu of pay they lived on the country, with resulting robbery, pillage and outrage. Neither side won, but hostilities finally stopped with the Treaty of Westphalia. The trouble started in the previous century when Ferdinand took over the German and Austrian half of Charles V's Habsburg Empire. The northern German barons protested against that Catholic ruler, and the conflagration started as a civil conflict of Protestant, northern Germany against Catholic, southern areas. It very soon became complicated, however, by the intervention of various other domestic and foreign elements. Some feel that foreign interference and pressures on the German princes actually precipitated the conflict. It had some similarities to the civil war in England and the War of the Fronde in France, in that in each case the crown was Catholic and the recalcitrant nobles tended to be Protestants. It is to be re-emphasized that the Thirty Years War was brutal and destructive, involving a semi-guerrilla force, which plundered, raped and killed wantonly. It was a series of bloody campaigns in which civilians often suffered more than soldiers. The following material, giving more of the actual details of this war, has been taken chiefly from Roden (Ref. 184 ), unless otherwise indicated. (Continue on page 948)

The thirty years war

Underlying causes

To some this was primarily a religious war in defense of one of the three faiths involved. The Calvinists fought for recognition as co-equals with Lutheranism and Catholicism. For most rulers it was a political struggle; for the Habsburgs it was a struggle to retain some measure of control over the various political-units in Germany and to keep some semblance of empire. It was also a civil war among jealous territorial princes and a dynastic struggle among ruling families such as the Wittelbachs in Bavaria. It was a predatory war fought by mercenary generals for fame, power and booty. Finally, it was an international war for territorial and economic gains, including efforts of Dutch, - Spaniards, Swedes, Bohemians and French.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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