# 14.1 Penetrating ability  (Page 2/2)

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Another means to block UV is by wearing sun protective clothing. This is clothing that has a UPF rating that describes the protection given against both UVA and UVB.

## Ultraviolet radiation and the eyes

High intensities of UVB light are hazardous to the eyes, and exposure can cause welder's flash (photo keratitis or arc eye) and may lead to cataracts, pterygium and pinguecula formation.

Protective eyewear is beneficial to those who are working with or those who might be exposed to ultraviolet radiation, particularly short wave UV. Given that light may reach the eye from the sides, full coverage eye protection is usually warranted if there is an increased risk of exposure, as in high altitude mountaineering. Mountaineers are exposed to higher than ordinary levels of UV radiation, both because there is less atmospheric filtering and because of reflection from snow and ice.

Ordinary, untreated eyeglasses give some protection. Most plastic lenses give more protection than glass lenses. Some plastic lens materials, such as polycarbonate, block most UV. There are protective treatments available for eyeglass lenses that need it which will give better protection. But even a treatment that completely blocks UV will not protect the eye from light that arrives around the lens. To convince yourself of the potential dangers of stray UV light, cover your lenses with something opaque, like aluminum foil, stand next to a bright light, and consider how much light you see, despite the complete blockage of the lenses. Most contact lenses help to protect the retina by absorbing UV radiation.

## X-rays

While x-rays are used significantly in medicine, prolonged exposure to X-rays can lead to cell damage and cancer.

For example, a mammogram is an x-ray of the human breast to detect breast cancer, but if a woman starts having regular mammograms when she is too young, her chances of getting breast cancer increases.

## Gamma-rays

Due to the high energy of gamma-rays, they are able to cause serious damage when absorbed by living cells.

Gamma-rays are not stopped by the skin and can induce DNA alteration by interfering with the genetic material of the cell. DNA double-strand breaks are generally accepted to be the most biologically significant lesion by which ionising radiation causes cancer and hereditary disease.

A study done on Russian nuclear workers exposed to external whole-body gamma-radiation at high cumulative doses shows a link between radiation exposure and death from leukaemia, lung, liver, skeletal and other solid cancers.

Cellphone radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world. This is because mobile phones use electromagnetic waves in the microwave range. These concerns have induced a large body of research. Concerns about effects on health have also been raised regarding other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks. In 2009 the World Health Organisation announced that they have found a link between brain cancer and cellphones.

Cellphone users are recommended to minimise radiation, by for example:

2. Keep the mobile phone away from the body.
3. Do not telephone in a car without an external antenna.

## Exercise - penetrating ability of em radiation

1. Indicate the penetrating ability of the different kinds of EM radiation and relate it to energy of the radiation.
2. Describe the dangers of gamma rays, X-rays and the damaging effect of ultra-violet radiation on skin

## Summary

1. Electromagnetic radiation has both a wave and a particle nature.
2. Electromagnetic waves travel at a speed of $3×{10}^{8}\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}m·{s}^{-1}$ in a vaccum.
3. The Electromagnetic spectrum consists of the follwing types of radiation: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma-rays.
4. Gamma-rays have the most energy and are the most penetrating, while radio waves have the lowest energy and are the least penetrating.

## End of chapter exercise

1. What is the energy of a photon of EM radiation with a frequency of $3×{10}^{8}$  Hz?
2. What is the energy of a photon of light with a wavelength of 660 nm?
3. List the main types of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing wavelength.
4. List the main uses of:
2. infrared
3. gamma rays
4. X-rays
5. Explain why we need to protect ourselves from ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
7. What precautions should we take when using cell phones?
8. Write a short essay on a type of electromagnetic waves. You should look at uses, advantages and disadvantages of your chosen radiation.
9. Explain why some types of electromagnetic radiation are more penetrating than others.

how is ester formed
how is n ester formed
Aubrey
Alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid
Texas
an athlete with a mass of 70kg runs at a velocity of 45km . determine the athlete's momentum
Is that a velocity or something else
msawenkosi
45km/h i guess
Texas
Change to m/s
Texas
45km/h = 12.5 m/s p=mv =70×12.5 =875 kg.m/s
Thato
what are the measures of the rates of reaction
Volume Concentration Temperature Pressure Surface Area
Thato
the principle of superposition of waves
what is work
is this a group chat
Hey can y'all define newton's 2nd law
mthebzification
If a resultant force act on an object...the object will accelerate in the direction of a resultant force,the acceleration of the object is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
mosa
how do you calculate tension force
Bulumko
use the formula Fnet=ma if there is tension connecting two objects
Sboniso
to calculate Tension, usually calculate acceleration first Draw separate free body diagrams for each body. Apply Fnet = ma to calculate Tension
Kevin
Hi people
Paul
how does temperature affect the equilibrium position
an increased temperature increases the average kinetic energy thus in turn increases the number of effective collisions........
Lwando
so...which reaction is favored between endothermic and exothermic .when temperature is increased..?
Blessing
exothermic reaction because energy is realised to the surroundings as heat and light energy ....graphical so much energy is realised as reactants to form product and because temperature is high rate of reaction is fast which means there is a successful collision
Code
INTEMENDO - INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE FAVOURS ENDOTHERMIC DETEMEXO - DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE FAVOURS EXOTHERMIC
Thato
an object will continue in a state of rest unless it is acted upon an unbalanced force
Newton's Law 1
Code
First Newton's Law
Azola
Newton's first law
Surprise
newton first law
Thinavhuyo
Newton's first law
Blessing
when pressure is increased what happen to volume
decreases
Code
care to explain?
Mpati
if pressure is applied to a pistol , the volume will decrease and particles will collide more frequently with the wall of a container .Each time they collide with the wall they exert a force on them .More collision means more force and the pressure will increase , that Boyle's Law
Code
Because the volume has decreased , the particle will collide more frequently with the wall of a container and each time they collide with the wall of a container they exert a force on them.More collision means more force so the pressure will increase , that Boyle's Law
Code
what is the difference between momentum and a change in momentum?
How to name a branched molecule from right or left?
What's Free Fall
Free Fall means there is no acting force on that object.
Dingaletu
only gravitational force
Dingaletu
no external force acting on an object
Sphiwe
by only force of gravite
Sello
but gravitational force
Sphiwe
true
Lucky
a motion in which the only force acting is gravitational force
Blessing
and an object experiencing free fall is referred as a projectile
Blessing
Do polymers form restrictedly only if compound is saturated, only?
what is a free fall?
is when The Only Force acting On an Object is Gravitational Force
Thats right
Beyanca
She's just helping those who forgot it...bro
Thato
guys I need help on Getting ready for a last minute test
Neil
we'll I'm in grade 12 so we doing this topic about upac thing
Kenelioe
on What?
the organic molecule section
Kenelioe
IUPAC NAMING WHICH FUNCTIONAL GROUP YOU CANNOT NAME?SO I COULD HELP YOU
ester
Sboniso
you should also look at structural isomers. Its crucial that they might add that one. also try and write down the structural formula of all the given compounds on the table
milani