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U.s. and soviet missile programs

The U.S. government had been seriously interested in unmanned rocket technology since late 1944, when several V2 rockets designed by Wernher von Braun were fired at London. Following the surrender of Germany, von Braun and several of his engineers were brought to Ft. Bliss, Texas, where they worked with the U.S. Army developing and testing rockets. In 1950, von Braun and his team moved to the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama, where they developed the Army’s Jupiter ballistic missile. “Dr. Wernher von Braun: First Center Director, July 1, 1960-Jan. 27, 1970,” MSFC History Office, http://history.msfc.nasa.gov.

In 1954, Eisenhower, concerned that the United States was vulnerable to surprise attack by the Soviet Union, requested that SAC/ODM conduct a study to assess that threat and recommend feasible countermeasures. SAC/ODM convened a Technology Capabilities Panel (TCP) chaired by Killian, R. Cargill Hall, “Sputnik, Eisenhower and the Formation of the United States Space Program,” Quest 14, No. 4, 34. and the president formally approved its recommendation to develop a high-altitude spy plane, later known as the U2, which could undertake reconnaissance flights over the Soviet Union and China. Mindful that such a spy plane might be shot down, In fact, in 1960 a U2 piloted by Gary Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union, an event resulting in an international furor and cancellation of a planned meeting between President Eisenhower and Soviet Secretary-General Nikita Khrushchev. the TCP also recommended that an earth satellite be developed for reconnaissance. Hall, op. cit . Meanwhile, a committee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), charged with planning American participation in the International Geophysical Year, forwarded to NSF director and SAC/ODM member Alan Waterman a proposal to develop and launch a small scientific satellite during the IGY. The Eisenhower administration approved the recommendation on the grounds that the launching of a satellite traveling above the atmosphere would validate its open-skies policy—namely, the right of all nations to launch satellites that would fly over other countries. On July 29, 1955, Eisenhower publicly announced that the United States planned to launch “small unmanned Earth circling satellites as part of U.S. participation in the International Physical Year.” Ibid., 35

Thus the Eisenhower administration committed itself to a two-track satellite program: the highly secret spy-satellite system and the open IGY system. Interservice rivalries, however, impeded both efforts. Out of three competing rocket programs—the Navy’s Vanguard, the Army’s Redstone (headed by von Braun), and the Air Force’s Atlas—the Vanguard won out, then failed twice in attempting to launch the IGY satellite.

Meanwhile, the Soviet Union was proceeding with its own plans to develop and launch earth satellites. On May 20, 1954, the Soviet Council of Ministers charged Sergey P. Korolev’s Scientific Research Institute Number 88 with developing an Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) capable of carrying a nuclear warhead to the United States. Ibid., 34. Shortly thereafter, Korolev requested authority to form a research department to study and “develop various aspects of this problem [development of an earth satellite].” On April 16, 1955, the Soviet daily Pravda announced that an Interdepartmental Commission of the Soviet Academy of Sciences had been charged with building an “automatic laboratory for scientific research in space.” Realizing that they could not complete the project prior to the end of the IGY, the Soviets opted to develop smaller, simpler satellites that would contain no instrumentation except a radio that could beam periodic signals to the earth. Hence the successful launching of Sputnik 1, followed a month later by the launch of Sputnik 2, carrying the dog, Laika.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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