# 2.1 Data types and expressions  (Page 5/5)

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`counter = counter + 1;`

can be reduced to

`counter += 1;`

Here is the full set.

 = *= Multyply /= Divide %= Modulus += Add -= Subtract <<= Left Shift >>= Right Shift &= Bitwise AND ^= Bitwise Exclusive OR (XOR) |= Bitwise Ixclusive OR

if expr1 and expr2 are expressions then

expr1 op= expr2 is equivalent to expr1 = expr1 op expr2

## Logical and relational operators

Relational operators

 Operators Meaning Examples > greater than ```2>3 (is 0) 6>4 (is 1) a>b``` >= greater than or equal to ```6>= 4 (is 1) x>= a``` < less than `5<3 (is 0),` <= less than or equal to ```5<= 5 (is 1) 2<= 9 (is 1)``` == equal to ```3 == 4 (is 0) a == b``` != not equal to ```5 != 6 (is 1) 6 != 6 (is 0)```

Logical operators

 Operators Meaning Data types of the operands Examples && logical and 2 logic expressions ```3<5&&4<6 (is 1) 2<1&&2<3 (is 0) a>b&&c= a || x == 0``` ! logical not 1 logic expression ```!3 (is 0) !(2>5) (is 1)```

## Bitwise operators

 Operators Meaning Data types of the operands Examples & Binary AND 2 binary numbers ```0&0 (is 0) 0&1 (is 0) 1&0 (is 0) 1&1 (is 1) 101&110 (is 100)``` | Binary OR 2 binary numbers ```0 | 0 (is 0) 0 | 1 (is 0)1 | 0 (is 0) 1 | 1 (is 1)101 | 110 (is 111)``` ^ Binary XOR 2 binary numbers ```0 ^ 0 (is 0) 0 ^1 (is 1)1 ^ 0 (is 1) 1 ^ 1 (is 0)101 ^ 110 (is 011)``` << Shift left 1 binary number ```a<> Shift right 1 binary number ```a>>n (is a/2n) 101>>2 (is 1)``` ~ One's complement 1 binary number ```~ 0 (is 1) ~ 1 (is 0)~ 110 (is 001)```

## Increment and decrement operators

Incrementing, decrementing and doing calculations on a variable is a very common programming task and C has quicker ways of writing the code. The code is rather cyptic in appearance.

The increment operator ++ adds 1 to its operand while the decrement operator - -subtract 1. We have frequently used ++ to increment variables, as in

```if (c = = ’\n’) ++n;```

The unusual aspect is that ++ and - - may be used either as prefix operators (before the variable, as in ++n) or postfix operators (after the variable, as in n++). In both cases, the effect is to increment n. But the expression ++n increments n before its value is used, while n++ increment n after its value has been used. This mean that in a context where the value is being used, not just the effect, ++n and n++ are different. For example, if n is 5, then

`x = n++;`

sets x to 5 but

`x = ++n;`

sets x to 6. In both cases, n becomes 6.

The increment and decrement operator can only be applied to variables; an expression like (i + j)++ is illegal.

The five operators listed in the following table are used in addressing array elements and members of structures, and in using pointers to access objects and functions.

 Operator Meaning Example Result & Address of &x Pointer to x * Indirection operator *p The object or function that p points to [ ] Subscripting x[y] The element with the index y in the array x (or the element with the index x in the array y: the [ ] operator works either way) . Structure or union member designator x.y The member named y in the structure or union x -> Structure or union member designator by reference p->y The member named y in the structure or union that p points to

## Type conversions

When an operator has operands of different types, they are converted to a common type according to a small number of rules. In general, the only automatic conversion era those that convert a narrower operand into a wider one without loosing information, such as converting an integer into floating point .

If there are no unsigned operands, the following informal set of rules will suffice:

If either operand is long double, convert the other to long double.

Otherwise, if either operand is double, convert the other to double.

Otherwise if either operand is float, convert the other to float.

Otherwise convert char and short to int.

Then if either operand is long, convert the other to long.

A char is just a small integer, so chars may be freely used in arithmetic expressions

## Precedence of operators

Operators listed by type.

All operators on the same line have the same precedence. The first line has the highest precedence.

 Level Operators Associativity 1 () [] . ->++ (postfix) – (postfix) -----> 2 ! ~ ++ (prefix) -- (prefix) - *&sizeof <----- 3 * / % -----> 4 + - -----> 5 <<>> -----> 6 <<=>>= -----> 7 == != -----> 8 & -----> 9 ^ -----> 10 | -----> 11 && -----> 12 || -----> 13 ?: <----- 14 = += -= <-----

Note:associate left to right

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
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Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
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what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
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Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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