<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms and explain how they affect urine volume and composition
  • Describe the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus

It is vital that the flow of blood through the kidney be at a suitable rate to allow for filtration. This rate determines how much solute is retained or discarded, how much water is retained or discarded, and ultimately, the osmolarity of blood and the blood pressure of the body.

Sympathetic nerves

The kidneys are innervated by the sympathetic neurons of the autonomic nervous system via the celiac plexus and splanchnic nerves. Reduction of sympathetic stimulation results in vasodilation and increased blood flow through the kidneys during resting conditions. When the frequency of action potentials increases, the arteriolar smooth muscle constricts (vasoconstriction), resulting in diminished glomerular flow, so less filtration occurs. Under conditions of stress, sympathetic nervous activity increases, resulting in the direct vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles (norepinephrine effect) as well as stimulation of the adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla, in turn, produces a generalized vasoconstriction through the release of epinephrine. This includes vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles, further reducing the volume of blood flowing through the kidneys. This process redirects blood to other organs with more immediate needs. If blood pressure falls, the sympathetic nerves will also stimulate the release of renin. Additional renin increases production of the powerful vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. Angiotensin II, as discussed above, will also stimulate aldosterone production to augment blood volume through retention of more Na + and water. Only a 10 mm Hg pressure differential across the glomerulus is required for normal GFR, so very small changes in afferent arterial pressure significantly increase or decrease GFR.

Autoregulation

The kidneys are very effective at regulating the rate of blood flow over a wide range of blood pressures. Your blood pressure will decrease when you are relaxed or sleeping. It will increase when exercising. Yet, despite these changes, the filtration rate through the kidney will change very little. This is due to two internal autoregulatory mechanisms that operate without outside influence: the myogenic mechanism and the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism.

Arteriole myogenic mechanism

The myogenic mechanism    regulating blood flow within the kidney depends upon a characteristic shared by most smooth muscle cells of the body. When you stretch a smooth muscle cell, it contracts; when you stop, it relaxes, restoring its resting length. This mechanism works in the afferent arteriole that supplies the glomerulus. When blood pressure increases, smooth muscle cells in the wall of the arteriole are stretched and respond by contracting to resist the pressure, resulting in little change in flow. When blood pressure drops, the same smooth muscle cells relax to lower resistance, allowing a continued even flow of blood.

Tubuloglomerular feedback

The tubuloglomerular feedback    mechanism involves the JGA and a paracrine signaling mechanism utilizing ATP, adenosine, and nitric oxide (NO). This mechanism stimulates either contraction or relaxation of afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells ( [link] ). Recall that the DCT is in intimate contact with the afferent and efferent arterioles of the glomerulus. Specialized macula densa cells in this segment of the tubule respond to changes in the fluid flow rate and Na + concentration. As GFR increases, there is less time for NaCl to be reabsorbed in the PCT, resulting in higher osmolarity in the filtrate. The increased fluid movement more strongly deflects single nonmotile cilia on macula densa cells. This increased osmolarity of the forming urine, and the greater flow rate within the DCT, activates macula densa cells to respond by releasing ATP and adenosine (a metabolite of ATP). ATP and adenosine act locally as paracrine factors to stimulate the myogenic juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole to constrict, slowing blood flow and reducing GFR. Conversely, when GFR decreases, less Na + is in the forming urine, and most will be reabsorbed before reaching the macula densa, which will result in decreased ATP and adenosine, allowing the afferent arteriole to dilate and increase GFR. NO has the opposite effect, relaxing the afferent arteriole at the same time ATP and adenosine are stimulating it to contract. Thus, NO fine-tunes the effects of adenosine and ATP on GFR.

Paracrine Mechanisms Controlling Glomerular Filtration Rate
Change in GFR NaCl Absorption Role of ATP and adenosine/Role of NO Effect on GFR
Increased GFR Tubular NaCl increases ATP and adenosine increase, causing vasoconstriction Vasoconstriction slows GFR
Decreased GFR Tubular NaCl decreases ATP and adenosine decrease, causing vasodilation Vasodilation increases GFR
Increased GFR Tubular NaCl increases NO increases, causing vasodilation Vasodilation increases GFR
Decreased GFR Tubular NaCl decreases NO decreases, causing vasoconstricton Vasoconstriction decreases GFR

Chapter review

The kidneys are innervated by sympathetic nerves of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic nervous activity decreases blood flow to the kidney, making more blood available to other areas of the body during times of stress. The arteriolar myogenic mechanism maintains a steady blood flow by causing arteriolar smooth muscle to contract when blood pressure increases and causing it to relax when blood pressure decreases. Tubuloglomerular feedback involves paracrine signaling at the JGA to cause vasoconstriction or vasodilation to maintain a steady rate of blood flow.

Questions & Answers

what is stumac
Abdussalam Reply
What is phagocytosis
Mohamed Reply
Phagocytosis, process by which certain living cells called phagocyte
Sadashiv
It is the process that is carried out by the immune system of the body, that certain specialized immune cells (macrophages, Nks, dendritic cells, etc) that engulf and neutralize the foreign substances that invades the body.
Wesley
So that they can be predicate out of the body.
Wesley
phagocytosis is the process by which living cell or yh plasma membrane engulf large molecules into it internal environment ... it also known as food feeding
Boateng
all that you are say what does it mean?
Dzah
simply is the way the immune system fights foreign bodies by engulfing them..
Dzah
by the help of the immune cells...
Dzah
what are the six types of connective tissues
Athieno Reply
describe the structure of the liver
Atwebembeire Reply
what is specific name for spinal cord
Stanley Reply
what is the best description for skeletal muscular
Stanley
what is the best description for skeletal muscular
Stanley
costs of bones of skeleton, their joint s and voluntary
grace
what are examples of long bones
grace
example of long bones will be the femur tibia and humerus and even radius
Nina
so basically long bones are mostly in you hands and feets
Nina
skeletal muscular are voluntary and are attached to the bone by tendon which help maintain the posture and position of the body and it also protects internal organs in the abdominal region
Nina
The specific name for spinal cord is coccygeal segment
Sandra
Smallest unit of life
Kimberly Reply
cell
Adnan
The cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of living organisms, which can exist on its own. Therefore, it is sometimes called the building block of life. Some organisms, such as bacteria or yeast, are unicellular—consisting only of a single cell—while others, for instance, mammalians, a
Adnan
cells are the building blocks of life
Stanley
Describe the complications of fracture
Zaifa Reply
functions of connective tissue
renah Reply
what is a local potential
Nandi Reply
potential of neurons
vipin
response of neurons against sodium ion Chanel
vipin
The resting membrane potential of a neuron is about -70 mV (mV=millivolt) - this means that the inside of the neuron is 70 mV less than the outside. At rest, there are relatively more sodium ions outside the neuron and more potassium ions inside that neuron.
Adnan
what is tissues
Addai Reply
are groups of specialized cell that perform they same activity
Deng
a group of specialized cells of the same structure and function
Malenga
a group of specialized cells that have the same structure and perform the same function
Cantiago
what is meant by control center?
Freeman Reply
what is anatomy
Ajibola Reply
is the study of the structure of the body and their relationship to each refers to the shapes iyo sizes
Khadar
If water touches hydrophobic tail, what will happen as negative effect?
Sayo
is the study of structural of the human body and their function
Masiame
What is the function of the Trachea
Samuel
what is a blastomere?
Toluba Reply
In biology, a blastomere is a type of cell produced by cleavage (cell division) of the zygote after fertilization and is an essential part of blastula formation.
Adnan
what is cell
Shivaani
Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells. They provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy, and carry out specialized functions. ... Cells have many parts, each with a different
Adnan
function
Adnan
cell is a membrane bound unit that contains the fundamentals molecules of life
Sushma
A1
Adnan
excellent
Adnan
movement,reproduction, excretion, respiration ,growth ,nutrition, response to external stimuli.
Sushma
good
Adnan
sister excellent
Adnan
questions pushy ja sukty hy kya
Maryam
jwab forun milta hy ya ak do din k bad
Maryam
Maryam Riaz sister what you say
Adnan
i want to say that k kush questions k answer mil sukty hy mjhy
Maryam
inshallah
Adnan
zaror mere behen
Adnan
question kari
Adnan
hn mil mil sakte h na esly
Ziya
Which muscle of the gluteal region originates from lumber spine? a. Gluteus medius b. Psoas major c. Iliacus d. Gluteus maximus
Maryam
sweet sister's
Adnan
question tu kari Inshallah Allah behtar kariga
Adnan
to mcqs kia to hy
Maryam
answer ni mila abhi
Maryam
wait sister
Adnan
what is the functional unit of kidneys
Khadar
nephron is the functional unit of kidney
Maryam
Maryam Riaz sister option. d. gluteus maximus
Adnan
thanks
Maryam
sorry Maryam Riaz sister
Adnan
option b. psoas major
Adnan
right answer this one
Adnan
nephron is the functional unit of kidney
Ihsan
I discussed with to my teachers
Adnan
d
Ihsan
d. is right option bro
Adnan
yes
Ihsan
what is cell
Shilpa
cell is the smallest unit of life
Maryam
ok
Shilpa
Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells. They provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy, and carry out specialized functions. ... Cells have many parts, each with a different
Adnan
function
Adnan
Maryam Riaz sister I m clear option d. also right thank you ihan bro
Adnan
type structure function origin insertion action of muscles
DAMINI Reply
get anatomyka app
Raghvendra
what you ask especially
Raghvendra
oxygn amount in our body
Tg Reply
A normal level of oxygen is usually 95% or higher. Some people with chronic lung disease or sleep apnea can have normal levels around 90%. The “SpO2” reading on a pulse oximeter shows the percentage of oxygen in someone's blood
Adnan

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask