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2: Electromagnetic waves : These are propagation of electric and magnetic fields. The electromagnetic waves do not require a medium for propagation. Its speed in vacuum is a universal constant. The motion of the electromagnetic waves in a medium depends on the electromagnetic properties of the medium.

3: Matter waves : The matter wave is associated with all matter. The wave nature of matter is not always appreciable. It becomes appreciable for sub-atomic particles like electrons, which display significant wave properties. This is the basis of electron microscope.

Nature of waves

The disturbance (vibration) and direction of wave may be either in the same direction (longitudinal wave) or mutually perpendicular (transverse wave). Primary seismic waves (also known as P-waves) and sound waves are examples of longitudinal waves. Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves in which electric and magnetic fields are alternating at right angles to the direction of propagation. Water waves, as discussed earlier, is combination of longitudinal and transverse waves.

Transverse waves

Transverse waves are characterized by the relatigve directions of vibration (disturbance) and wave motion. They are at right angle to each other. It is clear that vibration in perpendicular direction needs to be associated with a “restoring” mechanism in transverse direction.

Transverse waves

The vibration and wave motion are at right angle to each other (only one unit of wave shown for illustration purpose).

Consider a sinusoidal harmonic wave traveling through a string and the motion of a particle as shown in the figure above (only one unit of wave shown for illustration purpose). Since the particle is displaced from its natural (mean) position, the tension in the string arising from the deformation tends to restore the position of the particle. On the other hand, velocity of the particle (kinetic energy) moves the particle farther away from the mean position. Ultimately, the particle reaches the maximum displacement when its velocity is zero. Thereupon, the particle is pulled down due to tension towards mean position. In the process, it acquires kinetic energy (greater speed) and overshoots the mean position in the downward direction. The cycle of restoration of position continues as vibration (oscillation) of particle takes place.

For mechanical wave through solid, the restoring mechanism is provided by the elastic property of the medium. A body of liquid does not display elastic property. It can not restore deformation caused by shear i.e. transverse force. As such, transverse wave can not pass through a liquid body. On the surface of liquid, however, transverse (perpendicular to surface) deformation is restored by surface tension. For this reason, water surface waves have a transverse component. It means that transverse waves can be sustained on the surface, but not within the body of the liquid.

As far as gas is concerned, it does not exhibit elastic property like solid or surface tension like liquid. Gas simply yields to slightest transverse force without being restored. The intermolecular forces between molecules are too feeble to restore transverse deformation. Thus, mechanical transverse waves can not propagate through gas at all. Electromagnetic waves are exception to this. It is because EM waves do not require medium. There is no need to restore the system mechanically.

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
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Source:  OpenStax, Oscillation and wave motion. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10493/1.12
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