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An overview of how object oriented programming is different from procedural or modular structured programming.

Discussion

"In procedural programming, the programmer constructs procedures (or functions, as they are called in C++). The procedures are collections of programming statements that perform a specific task. The procedures each contain their own variables and commonly share variables with other procedures. Procedural programming is centered on the procedure or function." Tony Gaddis, Judy Walters and Godfrey Muganda, Starting Out with C++ Early Objects Sixth Edition (United States of America: Pearson – Addison Wesley, 2008) 22. For decades (1950s to through the 1980s) most programming was taught as procedural programming . Coupled with the imposition of using standardized control structures in the late 1960s, we have what is typically called modular structured programming .

Another, equally valid approach to programming is object-oriented programming or OOP. It was introduced in the mid 1980s and was widely accepted as a programming approach by the early 1990s. The first languages to introduce OOP to the masses were C++ and Java. Shortly after their introduction, there were American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards established for those languages. Today, C++ and Java are widely used.

"The primary differences between the two approaches is their use of data. In a procedural program, the design centers around the rules or procedures for processing the data. The procedures, implemented as functions in C++, are the focus of the design. The data objects are passed to the functions as parameters. The key question is how the functions will transform the data they receive for either storage or further processing. Procedural programming has been the mainstay of computer science since its beginning and is still heavily used today.

In an object-oriented program, abbreviated OOP, the design centers around objects that contain (encapsulate) the data and the necessary functions to process the data. In OOP, the objects own the functions that process the data." Behrouz A. Forouzan and Richard F. Gilberg, Computer Science A Structured Approach using C++ Second Edition (United States of America: Thompson – Brooks/Cole, 2004) 156.

"Object-oriented programming … is centered on the object. An object is a programming element that contains data and the procedures that operate on the data. The objects contain, within themselves, both the information and the ability to manipulate the information." Tony Gaddis, Judy Walters and Godfrey Muganda, Starting Out with C++ Early Objects Sixth Edition (United States of America: Pearson – Addison Wesley, 2008) 22.

To help complicate the picture, the C++ programming language can be used (and is used) to write either a procedural program (modular structured program) or an object-oriented program. Some items used by those writing procedural programs in C++ are in fact objects. Examples include:

  1. Standard input and output items of: cout and cin; example: cout.setf(ios::fixed)
  2. Strings; calculating the length with: identifier_name.length()
  3. File input/output; example: inData.open(filespec, ios::in)

Objects are implemented with a "class" data type; which is a complex or derived data type. Implementation details will not be presented in the module.

Transition

Many students will learn modular structured programming before learning object-oriented programming. The common way of teaching programming fundamentals is to cover them or divide them into three courses, usually covered in this order:

  1. Modular structured
  2. Object-oriented
  3. Data structures

The following items learned in modular structured programming flow into the learning of object-oriented programming:

  1. The standard and complex data types are the same
  2. The operators are the same, thus data manipulation is the same
  3. The control structures are the same
  4. Concepts of documentation and making code readable are the same
  5. The use of test data to verify logical thinking and program results is similar

Definitions

procedural programming
Aka modular structured programming.
object oriented
A programming approach that encapsulates data with functions.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals - a modular structured approach using c++. OpenStax CNX. Jan 10, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10621/1.22
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