<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

For example, specifying the set {1, 3, 5} as the universe and assigning 0 to the variable y, for example, is an interpretation for the wff ∀x Q(x, y), where Q(x, y) means x is greater than y. ∀x Q(x, y) with that interpretation reads, for example, "Every number in the set {1, 3, 5} is greater than 0".

As can be seen from the above example, a wff becomes a proposition when it is given an interpretation.

There are, however, wffs which are always true or always false under any interpretation. Those and related concepts are discussed below.

Satisfiable, unsatisfiable and valid wffs

A wff is said to be satisfiable if there exists an interpretation that makes it true, that is if there are a universe, specific predicates assigned to the predicate variables, and an assignment of values to the free variables that make the wff true.

For example, ∀x N(x), where N(x) means that x is non-negative, is satisfiable. For if the universe is the set of natural numbers, the assertion ∀x N(x) is true, because all natural numbers are non-negative. Similarly ∃x N(x) is also satisfiable.

However, ∀x [N(x) ⋀¬N(x)] is not satisfiable because it can never be true. A wff is called invalid or unsatisfiable, if there is no interpretation that makes it true.

A wff is valid if it is true for every interpretation*. For example, the wff ∀x P(x) ⋁∃x ¬P(x) is valid for any predicate name P , because ∃x ¬P(x) is the negation of ∀x P(x). However, the wff ∀x N(x) is satisfiable but not valid.

Note that a wff is not valid iff it is unsatisfiable for a valid wff is equivalent to true. Hence its negation is false.

Equivalence

Two wffs W1 and W2 are equivalent if and only if W1 ↔W2 is valid, that is if and only if W1 ↔W2 is true for all interpretations.

For example ∀x P(x) and ¬∃x ¬P(x) are equivalent for any predicate name P. So are ∀x [ P(x) ⋀Q(x) ] and [ ∀x P(x) ⋀∀x Q(x) ]for any predicate names P and Q .

Transcribing english to predicate logic wffs

English sentences appearing in logical reasoning can be expressed as a wff. This makes the expressions compact and precise. It thus eliminates possibilities of misinterpretation of sentences. The use of symbolic logic also makes reasoning formal and mechanical, contributing to the simplification of the reasoning and making it less prone to errors.

Transcribing English sentences into wffs is sometimes a non-trivial task. In this course we are concerned with the transcription using given predicate symbols and the universe. To transcribe a proposition stated in English using a given set of predicate symbols, first restate in English the proposition using the predicates, connectives, and quantifiers. Then replace the English phrases with the corresponding symbols.

Example: Given the sentence "Not every integer is even", the predicate "E(x)" meaning x is even, and that the universe is the set of integers, first restate it as "It is not the case that every integer is even" or "It is not the case that for every object x in the universe, x is even."

Then "it is not the case" can be represented by the connective "¬", "every object x in the universe" by "∀ x", and "x is even" by E(x).

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Discrete structures. OpenStax CNX. Jan 23, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10513/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Discrete structures' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask