# 6.1 Consumption choices

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By the end of this section, you will be able to:

• Calculate total utility
• Propose decisions that maximize utility
• Explain marginal utility and the significance of diminishing marginal utility

Information on the consumption choices of Americans is available from the Consumer Expenditure Survey carried out by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. [link] shows spending patterns for the average U.S. household. The first row shows income and, after taxes and personal savings are subtracted, it shows that, in 2015, the average U.S. household spent \$48,109 on consumption. The table then breaks down consumption into various categories. The average U.S. household spent roughly one-third of its consumption on shelter and other housing expenses, another one-third on food and vehicle expenses, and the rest on a variety of items, as shown. Of course, these patterns will vary for specific households by differing levels of family income, by geography, and by preferences.

 Average Household Income before Taxes \$62,481 Average Annual Expenditures \$48.109 Food at home \$3,264 Food away from home \$2,505 Housing \$16,557 Apparel and services \$1,700 Transportation \$7,677 Healthcare \$3,157 Entertainment \$2,504 Education \$1,074 Personal insurance and pensions \$5,357 All else: alcohol, tobacco, reading, personal care, cash contributions, miscellaneous \$3,356

## Total utility and diminishing marginal utility

To understand how a household will make its choices, economists look at what consumers can afford, as shown in a budget constraint line    , and the total utility    or satisfaction derived from those choices. In a budget constraint line, the quantity of one good is measured on the horizontal axis and the quantity of the other good is measured on the vertical axis. The budget constraint line shows the various combinations of two goods that are affordable given consumer income. Consider the situation of José, shown in [link] . José likes to collect T-shirts and watch movies.

In [link] , the quantity of T-shirts is shown on the horizontal axis, while the quantity of movies is shown on the vertical axis. If José had unlimited income or goods were free, then he could consume without limit. But José, like all of us, faces a budget constraint    . José has a total of \$56 to spend. The price of T-shirts is \$14 and the price of movies is \$7. Notice that the vertical intercept of the budget constraint line is at eight movies and zero T-shirts (\$56/\$7=8). The horizontal intercept of the budget constraint is four, where José spends of all of his money on T-shirts and no movies (\$56/14=4). The slope of the budget constraint line is rise/run or –8/4=–2. The specific choices along the budget constraint line show the combinations of T-shirts and movies that are affordable.

José wishes to choose the combination that will provide him with the greatest utility    , which is the term economists use to describe a person’s level of satisfaction or happiness with his or her choices.

an increase in demand (while supply remains constant) what will happen to deh graph?
what is going to happen to the graph if there is an increase in demand, While supply remains constant .
Thabiso
What will happen to the graph if there is an increase in demand While supply remains constant?
Thabiso
price will increase high than automatically demand will decrease
takshaveer
equilibrium ?
Issum
what is demand
demand is the willingness to buy a commodity backed by the ability to pay.
Runwell
demand is mere desire on commodity with ability to back up with purchasing power
Terkimbi
Equilibrium is when there's an equality between quantity demanded and quantity supplied
Again the consumer will be in equilibrium if the price of the commodity is equal to Marginal utility of that product
daniel
wat is the law of supply
It's what* -The law of supply states that price and supply is relative. As all factors are equal, if price increases then quantity of supply there for increases.
Nathaniel
the law of suppy state that when prise is high, more commodity with be supply and when p is low less of the same commodity will be supply.
BEGE
It states that, "other things being equal, move supplied at a higher price than at a lower price ".
Murewah
okay
Agnes
it's state that the increased in prices will lead to decreased in supply
Asuquo
what is the theory of supply and the determinants of demand
Murewah
And please what is change in quantity supplied?
Agnes
guys why are you so quiet
Murewah
A woman has a television set which cost her \$800 two years ago. A new set would cost her \$1000 and she could sell her television set for \$450. What is the opportunity Cost of keeping the old TV?
principle of effective demand?
the is the situation in which the need of individuals exceed the available resource. increase in population rate and wrong decision making
what is the different between wants and demand?
Terkimbi
wants are what people desire to have but they can live without them and demand is a thing that is most wanted
Murewah
what are the demand pull inflation
Hijja
the higher the aggregate level of activity, the larger the proportion of areas and industries which experience excess demand for goods and labour of various sorts , and the more powerful is demand-inflationary pressure . Demand inflation is contrasted with cost inflation , in which price and wage
Murewah
increases are transmitted from one sector to another. These should be regarded as different aspects of an overal inflation starts , cost inflation explains why inflation once begun is so difficult to stop.
Murewah
what is the important difference between positive and normative economics
Umar
positive economics is the study of how an economy works in practice, as opposed to the theoretical study of how it should run in theory and normative economics is the party of economics that is concerned with how the economy ought to be run.
Murewah
positive economic deal with fact and also talks about how the economy actually is like while normative economic deal with value judgement and talks about how the economy ought to be like
esther
What is the difference between opportunity cost and choice
Murewah
opportunity cost are also known as forgun alternative why choice is to select one among alternative
Terkimbi
importance of economic
satisfaction of human wants
Festo
economics is about to economise . discuss
Underlines the efficiency aspect. Economise towards what: Economise factors to reach equal distribution of Material wealth or Just to operate optimally to Service demand, i. e. Run markets efficiently?
Homo
join the conversation
Hi I'm Ashnly Parker.
Murewah
different btn import and export
Angel
No question... This is nice
hw can we solve problem of scarcity
Oigebe
scarcity is not necessarily a problem but a constant condition of the world. there are not enough resources to satisfy the unlimited wants.
Matthew
wee need to be cooperative
Zakaria
by unlimited resourses and abundant want
Angel
What is the economic problem
Murewah
inflation
Lazizjon
And what is demand pull inflation
Murewah
why do compute GDP?
can anyone shortly determine the word inflation.
Continous increase in the general level of prices or in the cost of living.
persistent increased in general price level
Machall
all correct...
paa
inflaction
Angel
rise in price.
Abubakar
deserving of money
Lazizjon
A persistent tendency for nominal prices to increase
Murewah
What is the problem of economic problem
Murewah
the father of economics
sj
Ajit
the father of economic regarding to adam Smith
Ibrahim
the father of political of economic and capitalism in his book and inquary in to the wealth of the nation.
Umar
Adam Smith his the father of economic
Mamudu
difference between injection and leakage
Asif
what is monopoly
Razak
Monopoly is a market structure where there is one firm who dominate the industry
wisdom
hi,, I am new here. please welcome me.
you are welcome
monopoly is the one characterized by a mkt power in which a firm is a price maker
Festo
Some member just ask questions but not answering so y this happen
Festo
Monopoly is a market where only one seller exists. No competition
Fred
how long does the patent right prevail the monopoly
Festo
no attempt
Zakaria
what is state farming
anybody to attempt
Festo
Hi, I'm a new member please will you welcome me
Murewah