# 0.8 Organic reactions

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Never handle sodium hydroxide pellets with your fingers. Use weighing paper and a scoopula. Solid sodium hydroxide will absorb water from the atmosphere. It is hygroscopic. Do not leave the container of sodium hydroxide open.

Keep ethanol and ethanol-water mixtures away from open flames.

Aqueous iron chloride will stain clothes permanently and is irritating to the skin. Avoid contact with this material.

In this experiment, you will saponify a vegetable oil

• Pour 5 mL (5.0 g) of vegetable oil into a 250-mL beaker.
• Slowly dissolve 2.5 g of NaOH pellets in 15 mL of the 50% ethanol/water mixture in a 50-mL beaker.
• Add 2-3 mL of the NaOH solution to the beaker containing the oil. Heat the mixture over a hot plate with stirring. CAUTION: Keep your face away from the beaker and work at arm's length. Stirring is required to prevent spattering. Every few minutes, for the next 20 minutes, add portions of the ethanol/water mixture while continuing to stir to prevent spattering. After about 10 more minutes of heating and stirring, the oil should be dissolved and a homogenous solution should be obtained.
• Add 25 mL of water to the hot solution. Using the hot grips, pour this solution into a 250 mL beaker containing 150 mL of saturated NaCl solution. Stir this mixture gently and permit it to cool for a few minutes.
• Skim the soap layer off the top of the solution and place it in a 50-mL beaker.
• Into a test tube, place a pea-sized lump of your soap. Place a similar amount of laundry detergent in a second tube and a similar amount of laundry detergent in a second tube and a similar amount of hand soap in a third tube. Add 10 mL of water to each tube. Stopper each tube and shake thoroughly.
• Estimate the pH of the solution using wide-range indicator solution or wide-range test paper. Record the results. Pour the contents of the test tubes into the sink and rinse the tubes with water.

## (total 25 points)

Hopefully here for the Pre-Lab

Name(Print then sign): ___________________________________________________

Lab Day: ___________________Section: ________TA__________________________

This assignment must be completed individually and turned in to your TA at the beginning of lab. You will not be allowed to begin the lab until you have completed this assignment.

For questions 1-4, draw the structural formulae of:

1) 2,2 - dimethylbutane

2) 3-ethyl-2,4-dimethylpentane

3) 2,3,4-trimethylhexane

4) 3-ethyl-2-methylheptane

For questions 5-8, give the names of

5) ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{CH}={\text{CH}}_{2}$

6) ${\text{CH}}_{3}\text{CH}=C={\text{CH}}_{2}$

7) ${\text{CH}}_{3}\text{CH}={\text{CHCH}}_{3}$

8) $\left({\text{CH}}_{3}{\right)}_{2}C={\text{CHCH}}_{3}$

For questions 9-11, give the structural formulae for:

9) hex-3-ene

10) 3-methylhex-1-ene

11) 2,5- dimethylhex-2-ene

For questions 12-14, give the names of:

12)

13)

14)

For questions 15-19, give the stuctural formulae of:

15) trans-1,2-dibromoethene

16) trans-1-chloroprop-1-ene

17) cis- hex-2-ene

18) pent-1-yne

19) 3-methylbut-1-yne

For questions 20-25, name the following compounds:

20)

21)

22)

23)

24)

25)

## Report: organic reactions

Hopefully here for the Report Form

Note: In preparing this report you are free to use references and consult with others. However, you may not copy from other students’work (including your laboratory partner) or misrepresent your own data (see honor code).

Name(Print then sign): ___________________________________________________

Lab Day: ___________________Section: ________TA__________________________

## Synthesis of esters

 Reagents Product Observations ${C}_{7}{H}_{6}{O}_{3}$ (salicylic acid ) + ${\text{CH}}_{3}\text{OH}$ (methyl alcohol) ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{CH}{}_{2}\text{}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{OH}$ (1 - octanol ) $+{\text{CH}}_{3}\text{COOH}$ (glacial acetic acid) ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{CH}{}_{2}\text{}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{OH}$ (amyl alcohol) $+{\text{CH}}_{3}\text{COOH}$ (glacial acetic acid) ${C}_{2}{H}_{5}\text{OH}$ (ethanol) $+{\text{CH}}_{3}\text{COOH}$ (acetic acid)

## Oxidation of an alcohol with acidified potassium dichromate(vi) solution.

Remember to describe what happens and explain the color changes.

What conditions and techniques would favour the oxidation of ethanol to

a. ethanal rather than ethanoic acid.

b. ethanoic acid rather than ethanal?

 Add 10 drops of dil. ${H}_{2}{\text{SO}}_{4}$ to 5 drops of ${K}_{2}{\text{Cr}}_{2}{O}_{7}$ to the following alcohols Observations: color/smellSmell cautiously! Observations: color/smell on warmingSmell cautiously! Ethanol Methanol Propan-2-ol

## Oxidation of an alcohol with acidified potassium permanganate (vii) solution

Remember to describe what happens and explain the color changes.

 Add 10 drops of dil. ${H}_{2}{\text{SO}}_{4}$ to 5 drops of ${\text{KMnO}}_{4}$ to the following alcohols Observations: color/smellSmell cautiously! Observations: color/smell on warmingSmell cautiously! Ethanol Methanol Propan-2-ol

## Saponification of a vegetable oil

 Reagent pH from indicator paper Your soap Laundry Detergent Hand Soap

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research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
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how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
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NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
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Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
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is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
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so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
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Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
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Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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types of nano material
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many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
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I'm interested in nanotube
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what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
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