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Social sciences: history

Grade 6

The development of medical science

Module 2

Jenner conquers pox

At the beginning of the 19th century, several scientists were working hard to find cures against deadly diseases. Illnesses like smallpox, which caused the death of people until fairly recently, are not such a big danger to mankind any longer.

Today, scientists are trying to find cures for other illnesses which threaten us, such as AIDS and cancer.

In the following section you will find out who have made valuable contributions to the fight against dangerous diseases.

a) The fight against smallpox

Read the following article and answer the questions:


Castle of Good Hope, 31 December 1755. This year the Cape was hit by the terrible “pox” which had raged so violently across the country in 1713. (In that year a ship carrying sailors with smallpox, docked at Cape Town. Hundreds of people died and the Khoina, in particular were affected. Complete Khoina tribes became extinct, and that broke the might of the Khoina for ever.

During 1755 altogether 987 Freeburghers and 492 slaves died from smallpox at the Cape. In the rural areas this disease was not as devastating, probably because those farmers stayed away from the Cape when they heard about the epidemic.

At that time disease was brought to the Cape through a ship which arrived from Ceylon (Sri Lanka). The clothes of people who had died from this disease, were bought by other people and in this way the disease spread rapidly. The governor took strict precautions to prevent this disease from ever being brought to the Cape again.

Everyone at the Cape went to church on 7 April 1756 to thank the Lord for having spared their lives and because there were no further cases of the disease.

(Adapted from: A. Boëseken: Die Nuusbode )

Activity 1:

To verify your explanation on pox with relevant proof

[lo 1.3]

(i) How many smallpox epidemics hit the Cape? Write down approximately how many people died during each epidemic.

(ii) Write down two causes of smallpox at the Cape.

(iii) What prevented people in the rural areas from getting smallpox?

(iv) You are the governor at the Cape and must ensure that the Cape is never again struck by this disease. Write down a number of measures which you will apply to protect the Cape.


Have a discussion in class and tell your friends

what measures you will apply to prevent smallpox from

breaking out at the Cape again.

b) Edward Jenner conquers this disease

At the end of the 18 th century Edward Jenner heard of a country girl who said that she did not get the smallpox because she had had cowpox. People became infected from the sores on the udders of cows that they milked. Jenner started doing experiments to find an antidote for this disease.

He took the risk of inoculating an eight-year-old boy, James Phipps, with cowpox bacteria. This he did by first of all making a small cut on James’s arm and rubbing fluid from the sores on the girl’s arm, into the cut. The boy was later injected with real smallpox germs, but did not become ill. He had been made immune against smallpox. I wonder if you would have let yourself be inoculated if you were James?

Jenner repeated the experiment several times and nobody who had been inoculated became ill. His method of inoculation soon became known and people in other countries started using the same method.

Through the work of Jenner, everyone was saved from this dangerous disease.

Today people hardly get smallpox any more – the disease has almost been wiped out.

c) Assignment

Write down what you think Jenner would have written in his diary after he inoculated James Phipps with real smallpox germs.


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
HISTORICAL ENQUIRY The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 finds sources:
  • identifies sources to help answer the question about the topic;
1.2 works with sources:
  • selects and records relevant information for specific purposes from a variety of sources (e.g. oral, written and visual sources, including maps, graphs and tables, objects, buildings, monuments, museums);
1.3 answers the question:
  • arranges information logically and chronologically in answering questions about people, events, objects, and places in the past.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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