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English first additional language

Grade 8

Celebrations

Module 15

Comprehension

Activity 1:

To read a text (fiction)

Read for information

[lo 3.1, 3.4.3]

  • You are now going to look at three articles about some special days. It is important to be tolerant about the religions of others and to understand their religions.
  • Read the following passages, telling you about some celebrations, which are important to millions of people. Read them carefully and then answer the questions that follow:

Section 1: a look at an islamic holy day: ramadan

The Koran, the holy month of the fast – one of the five pillars of Islam, ordains Ramadan in the ninth month of the Islamic year, for all adult Muslims. According to the Koran, the fast of Ramadan has been instituted so that believers “may cultivate piety”.

The fast during Ramadan begins each day at dawn and ends immediately at sunset. During the fast, Muslims are forbidden to eat, drink or smoke. Before retirement each night, special congregational prayers are offered in which long passages of the Koran are recited. The night between the 26th and 27th days of Ramadan, on which the first revelation occurred, is called the Night of Determination, during which, according to the Koran, God determines the course of the world for the following year. The day after the end of Ramadan is called the Fast-Breaking and is celebrated with special prayers and festivities.

The first day of the tenth month, Shawwal, marks the end of the fast and is a day of great rejoicing. It is the major festival of the year and is variously known as “the great festival”, “the festival of the breaking of the fast” or simply “the festival” (al-eed).

1. What is the purpose of Ramadan?

2. During which hours do Muslims observe the fast?

3. What may Muslims not do during this time?

4. Why is it called the ‘Night of Dedication’?

5. How is the end of the fast celebrated?

Section 2: the history of a christian carol: silent night, holy night

Christmas is one of the most celebrated occasions for Christians. Many different traditions are followed in the world to celebrate this Christian festival. One tradition, attributed to almost all Christian cultures across the world – the singing of the carol, ‘Silent Night. Holy Night’, on Christmas Eve. Do you know where this carol originated? To find out, read the following extract from an article.

The Humble Beginnings of Silent Night

by Per Ola and Emily D’Aulaire

Snow fell softly onto the wooden and stone houses of Oberndorf, an Austrian village. The villagers had all decorated freshly hewn spruce trees with candles, fruit and nuts as they prepared for the holiest of nights. Soon bells would peal from Oberndorf’s modest church to announce Midnight Mass, and the faithful would celebrate the birth of Christ with prayer and song.

Within the Church of St Nicholas, however, the mood was hardly one of joy that Christmas Eve afternoon in 1818. Curate Joseph Mohr, 26, had just discovered that the organ was badly damaged. No matter how hard the pedals were pumped, he could coax only a scratchy wheeze from the ancient instrument. Mohr was desperate. By the time a repairman could reach the parish, Christmas would be long over. To the young curate, a Christmas without music was unthinkable.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, English first additional language grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11042/1.1
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