<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Lower-body warm up:

  • Return to squatting position – feet apart – knees bent – body upright.
  • Bend and straighten knees, pushing buttocks out and bringing body slightly forward with a straight back – hands on knees (eight times).
  • Bring feet together and squat eight times.
  • Alternate opening and closing legs while squatting (eight times).

Lower-back warm up:

  • Remain in squatting position – hands on knees.
  • Contract lower back by tucking your buttocks in and under your body and release (eight times).

Shin and calf warm up:

  • Remain in squatting position and lift and lower heels alternatively eight times.
  • Raise and lower toes alternatively eight times

Hamstring and Quadriceps warm-up:

  • Lunge from side to side eight times.
  • Deepen the lunge and slowly bring hands to the floor while lunging (use eight counts).
  • Lunge to the right and hold lunge for eight counts while lifting the toes of the straight leg and raising the heel of the bent leg (eight counts).
  • Change sides.
  • Hold the stretches for eight counts.
  • Lunge to the right again and turn body to face the right.
  • Bend and straighten front knee eight times.
  • Straighten both legs and bend back knee towards the floor and straighten eight times.
  • Return to centre.
  • Change to left and repeat above exercise.


  • Lunge from side to side while slowly straightening the body – head up last.
  • Walk on the spot with feet open for eight counts.
  • Bring feet together and walk on the spot for eight counts.
  • Shake all moveable body parts.

You are now ready to commence your dance activities.

Activity 2:

To move across space in movement sequences: moving!


Are you ready to start moving? As Heritage Day is coming up in September, it would be appropriate to explore African dance and then perform a dance on Heritage Day for the celebrations.

Here are guidelines to assist you in creating your special Heritage Day Dance :

The music

Choose any music with an African ‘feel’.

  • Examples:
  • “Ipi Tombi” Soundtrack
  • “Shosholoza” by Ladysmith Black Mambazo
  • “Danzer” by Anton Goosen and Lucky Dube
  • “Pennywhistle” by Mango Groove
  • “Imagine Africa” by Sean Fren
  • “The Warrior” by Margaret Singana
  • “Hamba Bhekile” by Margaret Singana
  • You are more than welcome to experiment with only percussion or a drum beat instead of the music.
  • Listen attentively to the music.
  • Choose the music you would like to use for your dance.

The rhythm

  • Rhythm is provided for the dancer by musicians playing percussive instruments, by singers, or by a combination of music and song.
  • An African dancer is assessed primarily on his ability to follow the percussive musical rhythm, “to play the drums with his feet” or with whatever part of the body articulates the rhythm.
  • In some cultures, the rhythmic patterns are expressed in foot patterns, in others in contractions of the torso, strong shoulder beats, rapid vibrations or twists of the buttocks, or acrobatic leaps.
  • Rhythm gives the name to the dance steps:
  • “Ikpo Okme”: performers hop from one foot to the other
  • “Ebenebe”: a stamping pattern leads into a cartwheel
  • “Iza”: an upright carriage with high kicks
  • “Nkpopi”: a leaping dance
  • “Etukwa”: the torso inclined to the earth as the feet drum a staccato beat
  • “Nzaukwu Nabi”: a stamping step with sudden pauses
  • “Ubi-Ogazu”: birdlike hops in a circle

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Arts and culture grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11067/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Arts and culture grade 9' conversation and receive update notifications?