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English home language

Grade 9

A true sense of freedom

Module 21

Direct and reported speech

Activity 1:

To identify and use direct and reported speech correctly

[lo 2.5]

  • Freedom of speech is a right that is rated very highly by teenagers, journalists and almost every other human being. When we repeat a message or give our opinion, it is our responsibility to speak clearly and correctly. There should be no ambiguity about what we have said.
  • Direct speech refers to the exact words of the speaker.

1. It is indicated by inverted commas, also known as quotation marks or speech marks.

2. It can be introduced by a verb such as ‘said’ or ‘asked’, but there are many others

3. If the spoken words are given first, then they are followed by a comma, exclamation mark or question mark, never a full stop.

4. The first word after the initial inverted comma begins with a capital letter, e.g.

Mary said, “Sir, I do not have my homework here,” or

“Sir, I do not have my homework here,” said Mary.

  • Reported speech

1. Has no inverted commas.

2. The introductory verbs are linked to the reported speech by ‘that’, ‘if’ and ‘whether’.

3. Pronouns change from 1 st or 2 nd Person to 3 rd Person.

4. If the introductory verb is in the past tense, then the reported speech must also be in

the past tense.

  1. Adverbs of time and place change and some adjectives change too.
  2. Commands and exclamations are different and need to be given

special attention, e.g.

“Children, sit down!” Mr Jacobs said.

Mr Jacobs told the children to sit down.

“Whee, this game is exciting,” the little girl shouted.

The little girl shouted excitedly that that game was exciting.

  • Read the following notes carefully. Using a telephone correctly is a basic business skill, which will help you in any profession.

Exercise on changing direct speech to reported speech

1. Charles said, “I saw Rosemary yesterday.” (3)

2. Jannie shouted, “Ouch, I burnt myself!” (4)

3. Mr Mbisi commanded, “Neil. Come here!” (1)

4. “Why can’t I go now?” asked Ingrid. (3)

5. Rafeeq said, “I feel so tense today.” (3)

Change REPORTED speech to DIRECT speech

6. The girl shouted happily that she had won.

7. Her mother asked her if that was the truth.

8. Thandi told Heinrich to do his homework before the next day.

9. The learner thanked the principal formally.

Activity 2:

To examine how language is used to construct gender, race, the environment, health etc. and to suggest ways of re-writing texts to create other possibilities

[lo 6.5.3]

exactly what you want to about people, whether it is a biased opinion or not. Biased words have connotations, which can sway us to believe a certain view. For example, a poet once said that an elderly woman could be described in three ways, namely:

that dear old soul

that old woman

that old witch

It is obvious from this example that we will think favourably of the woman in the first example, that the second statement is insulting and that the last statement gives a very negative impression.

We should not form any opinion about someone before we know that person. We should never pre-judge anyone. We should also remain impartial to any biased words until we can examine the facts critically. We should also reject any biased words which are hurtful or which discriminate against anyone. After all, we have the right to be treated equally.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Source:  OpenStax, English home language grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11060/1.1
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