# Introduction

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Introduction to the Signals chapter

To describe signals and to understand that signals can carry information we need tools for mathematical description and manipulation of signals.

In this chapter we introduce several important signals and show simple methods of describing them. Depending on which type of signals we are looking at, it will bedifferent methods availiable for manipulating them. The elementary operations for manipulating signals and sequences will be described.

## Contents of this chapter

• Introduction (current module)
• Discrete time signals
• Analog signals
• Discrete vs Analog signals
• Frequency definitions and periodicity
• Energy&Power
• Exercises

The simplest signals are one-dimensional and what follows is a classification of them.

## Analog signals

An analog signal is a continuous function of a continuous variable. Referring to , this corresponds to that both the 1st AND the 2nd axis is continuous. The 1st axiswill in general correspond to the variable $t$ , meaning time. In this context we define

• signal range - the possible amplitude values the signal can take
• signal axis - the time interval for which the signal exists

## Time discrete signals

A time discrete signal is a continuous signal of a discrete variable. Referring to , we have the 1st axis discrete while the 2nd axis is continuous. Often we assign the values of the 1st axis to a variable $n$ . Time discrete signals often originate from analog signals being sampled.More on that in the Sampling theorem chapter.

Note that the signal is only defined for integer values along the 1st axis. We do not have any information other than the values at index points.

## Digital signals

Let the signal be a discrete function of a discrete variable, e.g. 1st and 2nd axis discrete, then the signal will be digital . Examples of digital signals are a binary sequence. Digital signals often arise from samplinganalog signals and the samples being assigned to a discrete value.

## Periodic vs non periodic signals

All the signals mentioned above can be periodic. For time discrete and digital signals one has to be extra cautious when "declaring" periodicity as wewill see in Frequency definitions&periodicity . shows a periodic signal with period ${T}_{0}$ and an aperiodic signal.

## Matlab file

Take a look at

• Discrete time signals
• Analog signals
• Discrete vs Analog signals
• Frequency definitions and periodicity
• Energy&Power
• Exercises
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where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
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What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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