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= Muscle is a contractile tissue type of animals

Khan video: Anatomy of a muscle cell

(External Link)

Khan video: Myosin and actin

(External Link)

Khan video: Role of sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle cell

(External Link)

Three types of muscle

Smooth/ involuntary

  • not by will- spontaneous
  • unconscious routine tasks of the body:
    • Food moving down the digestive system
    • keeping the eyes in focus
    • adjusting the diameter of blood vessels


  • spindle shaped cells with nucleus
Illustrates the structure of a smooth muscle


Found in the walls of:

  • blood vessels
  • Uterus
  • bladder
  • Intestines

Cardiac muscle

  • Responsible for your heart beat (muscle only found in the heart)
  • Only found in the walls of the heart


  • branched and contains intercalated disks
  • Carry message in each cell for heart contraction
Illustrates the structure of the cardiac muscle


controlled by will

  • Running
  • Walking
  • Skipping


  • The basic units of a muscle are called myofibrils .
  • These myofibrils make up the muscle fibre (large muscle cells).
  • Numerous muscle fibres (cells) are found in bundles .
  • These bundles are surrounded by perimisium
    • This is called fasciculus
  • Numerous fasciculi are surrounded by epimysium
  • This forms a muscle
Indicates the differing structural components of the voluntary muscle.

Muscle contraction

  • Myofibrils are responsible for the muscle contraction.
  • Each myofibril consists of units called sarcomeres (there are many sarcomeres ineach myofibril )
  • Sarcomeres consist of thin actin filaments and thick myosin filaments.
  • When muscle fibres contract these filaments slide across each other.
  • The actin filaments shorten, but the length of the myosin filaments do not change.
  • This causes the sarcomeres shorten,
    • leading to the whole muscle to shorten
  • ATP (energy) is a substance in the muscle fibre that provides energy for the contracting actin filament.

IMAGE!!!Details on wish list

Video: Summary of the workings of the muscle

(External Link)

Muscle Exercise:

Column A

Column B

A) Attached to skeleton by tendons 1) Cardiac muscle
B) Seen in bundles 2) Blood vesels
C) They make up muscle fibers 3) Muscles
D) Spindle shaped structure 4) movement
E) Causes the pumping action of the heart. 5) muscle fibres
F) smooth muscles are found here 6) Fasciculus
G) specialized tissue 7) myofibrils
H) contraction and relaxation 8) voluntary muscles
I) bundles surrounded by perimysium 9) epimysium
J) Numerous fasciculi are surrounded by 10) Involuntary muscle

Choose the correct answer for column A from column B (only one correct answer per question)

Activity: classifying muscle types

  • Use the following story to classify the different muscle types. Use a coloured pen or highlighter to underline or highlight the actions in the story whichrequire the different types of muscles
  • Suggested colours to use: Pink = Cardiac Muslces; Blue =Voluntary ; Yellow = Involuntary
  • Then draw each structure in the space provided



6 a.m on a Monday morning Tsholo’s alarm goes off.

She jumps out of bed and walks to the toilet to relieve her bladder. Tsholo is very excited for the day and skips back to her room to get dressed and pack herschool bag for the new week. In the kitchen mom has prepared Tsholo’s favourite porridge –Mielie Meal *. Tsholo eats het porridge with greatpleasure. After breakfast, she brushes het teeth and skips to the car where she waits for mom to unlock the doors.

At school Tsholo runs to her friends in total excitement to tell them about her visit to her grandmother. While chatting she sees Tom - the boy she likes alot! He looks her way and Tsholo’s starts blushing. Her heart rate increases and her palms become sweaty.

The bell rings.

Tsholo and her friends walk to class, giggling and talking. Her heart rate slowly returns back to normal . The week has begun…

Draw and label the three different muscle types




Interesting facts – skeleton

  • A baby is born with more bones (360 bones) than an adult (average 206 bones). Bones making up the skull and the spine fuse together as the body grows makingit less.
  • The femur/thigh bone is the largest in your body. The femur is approximately one quarter of a person’s overall height.
  • Strengthen your skeleton by drinking milk and eating leafy greens (such as brussels sprouts and kale). They contain calcium which keeps bones healthy andstrong.
  • A broken bone produces many new cells to rebuild the bone. These cells cover both ends of the broken part of the bone and close up the break.
  • Your bones are alive! In your body bones have their own nerves and blood vessels.
  • Your bone is 50% water and 50% solid material
  • You have 14 bones are in your face.
  • There are 8 bones in each of your wrists
  • You have 23 bones in each foot ( this includes the ankle)
  • Your skull is made up of fused bones which acts like a hard protective helmet for your brain.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
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