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Three important OOP concepts

OOP is an abbreviation for Object-Oriented Programming. Most books on OOP will tell you that in order to understand OOP, you need to understand the following three concepts :

  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism

I will discuss the first two concepts in more detail in this and future modules. As near as I can tell, unlike C++ and Java, Python does not support polymorphism, atleast not in any significant way.

C++ and Java support two forms of polymorphism:

  • Compile-time polymorphism
  • Runtime polymorphism

Both of these depend on the "strongly-typed" nature of C++ and Java. Because Python is a "weakly-typed" (if typed at all) programming language, I don't know how to implement either form of polymorphism using Python. (However, if I am wrong on this, please let me know and I will be happy to learn how to implement polymorphism in Python.)

Generally, speaking, the concepts in the above list increase in difficulty going down the list from top to bottom. Therefore, I will begin with encapsulation and work my way down the list in successive modules.

What is an Object-Oriented Program ?

Many authors would answer this question something like the following:

An Object-Oriented Program consists of a group of cooperating objects, exchanging messages, for the purpose of achieving a common objective.

What is an object ?

An object is a software construct that encapsulates data, along with the ability to use or modify that data.

What is encapsulation ?

An interesting description of encapsulation was provided in an article by Rocky Lhotka regarding VB.NET. That description reads as follows:

"Encapsulation is the concept that an object should totally separate its interface from its implementation. All the data and implementation code for an object should be entirely hidden behind its interface. The idea is that we can create an interface (Public methods in a class) and, as long as that interface remains consistent, the application can interact with our objects. This remains true even if we entirely rewrite the code within a given method thus the interface is independent of the implementation."

I like this description, so I won't try to improve on it. I do need to point out that according to The Python Tutorial ,

"In fact, nothing in Python makes it possible to enforce data hiding -- it is all based upon convention."

Within that restriction, it is still possible to approximate encapsulation as described by Lhotka using Pythonprovided that appropriate conventions are adhered to.

Discussion and sample code

A real-world analogy -- a car radio

Abstract concepts, such as the concept of an object or encapsulation, can often be best understood by comparing them to real-world analogies. One imperfect, but fairly good analogy to a software object is the radio in your car.

The ability to store data

Your car radio probably has the ability to store data, and to allow you to use and modify that data at will. (However, you can only use and modify that data through use of the human interface that is provided by the manufacturer of the radio.) The data that can be stored in your car radio probably includes a list of five or more frequencies that correspond to your favorite radio stations.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Itse 1359 introduction to scripting languages: python. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11713/1.32
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