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An audio graph of a square wave

I explained the concept of an audio graph in the earlier module titled Jbs2000-What is Sound? but I will explain it again here for your convenience. (Click AudioGraphSquareWave to hear an audio representation of the graph of a square wave.)

This audio graph file contains an 8-second melody consisting of 32 uniformly spaced pulses at different frequencies. The frequencies (pitches) of the pulses are centered on middle-C (261.63 Hz) . The frequency deviation from middle-C versus time is based on a square wave function with a frequency of0.5 Hz.

Points on graph

Each pulse represents one point on a graph of the square wave. Pulses with frequencies at or above middle-C are delivered to the left speaker. Pulses withfrequencies below middle-C are delivered to the right speaker.

The audio output can be thought of as an audio representation of a graph of a square wave. Pulses with frequencies above middle-C represent points on thepositive lobe of the square wave. Increasing pitch represents increasing amplitude on the graph of the square wave.

Pulses with frequencies below middle-C can be thought of as representing points on the negative lobe of the square wave. In this case, decreasing pitchrepresents points on the square wave that are further from the horizontal axis in the negative direction.

Pulses with a frequency of middle-C can be thought of as representing points on the horizontal axis with a value of zero but there are no points on thehorizontal axis for a square wave.

Four complete cycles of the 0.5 Hz square wave are represented by the 32 pulses in the 8-second melody.

Hopefully, by listening to this audio file, you can get an idea of the shape of a square wave.

Discussion and sample code

This program requires the following five classes:

Three classes are unchanged

I won't bore you by repeating the discussion from earlier modules. The first three classes in the above list are completely unchanged from the module titled Jbs2010-Your First Sound Program . Therefore, I won't discuss them furtherin this module.

The class named MusicComposer05

The class named MusicComposer05 differs from the previous version only in the following respects:

  • Changes in the explanatory comments.
  • Replacement of the term WhiteNoise with the term SquareWave .
  • Replacement of the term whiteNoise with the term squareWave .

Therefore, I also won't discuss this class further in this module.

The class named SquareWave

A complete listing of the class named SquareWave is provided in Listing 11 . I will break this class down and explain it in fragments.

Beginning of the class named SquareWave

The sound that you heard when you listened to the audio file named SquareWave was produced by the getMelody method of the SquareWave class. The SquareWave class begins in Listing 1 and the getMelody method begins in Listing 2 .

The code in Listing 1 differs from the corresponding WhiteNoise code from the earlier module only with respect to the name of the class.Therefore, I won't discuss it further.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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