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An audio graph of a square wave

I explained the concept of an audio graph in the earlier module titled Jbs2000-What is Sound? but I will explain it again here for your convenience. (Click AudioGraphSquareWave to hear an audio representation of the graph of a square wave.)

This audio graph file contains an 8-second melody consisting of 32 uniformly spaced pulses at different frequencies. The frequencies (pitches) of the pulses are centered on middle-C (261.63 Hz) . The frequency deviation from middle-C versus time is based on a square wave function with a frequency of0.5 Hz.

Points on graph

Each pulse represents one point on a graph of the square wave. Pulses with frequencies at or above middle-C are delivered to the left speaker. Pulses withfrequencies below middle-C are delivered to the right speaker.

The audio output can be thought of as an audio representation of a graph of a square wave. Pulses with frequencies above middle-C represent points on thepositive lobe of the square wave. Increasing pitch represents increasing amplitude on the graph of the square wave.

Pulses with frequencies below middle-C can be thought of as representing points on the negative lobe of the square wave. In this case, decreasing pitchrepresents points on the square wave that are further from the horizontal axis in the negative direction.

Pulses with a frequency of middle-C can be thought of as representing points on the horizontal axis with a value of zero but there are no points on thehorizontal axis for a square wave.

Four complete cycles of the 0.5 Hz square wave are represented by the 32 pulses in the 8-second melody.

Hopefully, by listening to this audio file, you can get an idea of the shape of a square wave.

Discussion and sample code

This program requires the following five classes:

Three classes are unchanged

I won't bore you by repeating the discussion from earlier modules. The first three classes in the above list are completely unchanged from the module titled Jbs2010-Your First Sound Program . Therefore, I won't discuss them furtherin this module.

The class named MusicComposer05

The class named MusicComposer05 differs from the previous version only in the following respects:

  • Changes in the explanatory comments.
  • Replacement of the term WhiteNoise with the term SquareWave .
  • Replacement of the term whiteNoise with the term squareWave .

Therefore, I also won't discuss this class further in this module.

The class named SquareWave

A complete listing of the class named SquareWave is provided in Listing 11 . I will break this class down and explain it in fragments.

Beginning of the class named SquareWave

The sound that you heard when you listened to the audio file named SquareWave was produced by the getMelody method of the SquareWave class. The SquareWave class begins in Listing 1 and the getMelody method begins in Listing 2 .

The code in Listing 1 differs from the corresponding WhiteNoise code from the earlier module only with respect to the name of the class.Therefore, I won't discuss it further.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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