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This case violates the rule

In this case, the method named m is defined in the class named B , which is two levels down from the class named Object .

The method named m is neither defined in nor inherited into the class named Object .

When the reference to the object of the class B was assigned to the reference variable of type Object , the type of the reference was automatically converted to type Object .

Therefore, because the reference is type Object , it cannot be used directly to call the method named m .

The solution is a downcast

In this case, the solution to the problem is a downcast.

The code in Listing 6 shows an attempt to solve the problem by casting the reference down the hierarchy to type A .

Listing 6 . Try a downcast to type A.

//Following will not compile //((A)var).m();

Still doesn't solve the problem

However, this still doesn't solve the problem, and the result is another compiler error.

The method named m is neither defined in nor inherited into the class named A .

Again, it was necessary to convert the statement into a comment in order to cause the program to compile.

What is the problem here?

The problem with this approach is that the downcast simply didn't go far enough down the inheritance hierarchy.

The class named A does not contain a definition of the method named m . Neither does it inherit the method named m . The method named m is defined in class B, which is a subclass of A .

Therefore, a reference of type A is no more useful than a reference of type Object insofar as calling the method named m is concerned.

The real solution

The solution to the problem is shown in Listing 7 .

Listing 7 . Try a downcast to type B.

//Following will compile and run ((B)var).m();

The code in Listing 7 casts (temporarily converts) the reference value contained in the Object variable named var to type B .

The method named m is defined in the class named B . Therefore, a reference of type B can be used to call the method.

The code in Listing 7 compiles and executes successfully. This causes the method named m to execute, producing the following output on the computer screen:

m in class B

A few odds and ends

Before leaving this topic, let's look at a few more issues.

The code in Listing 8 declares and populates a new variable of type B.

Listing 8 . Assign var to v1.

//Following will compile and run B v1 = (B)var;

The code in Listing 8 uses a cast to:

  • Convert the contents of the Object variable to type B
  • Assign the converted reference to the new reference variable of type B .

This is a legal operation. In this class hierarchy, the reference to the object of the class B can be assigned to a reference variable of the types B, A , or Object .

While this operation is legal, it is usually not a good idea to have two different reference variables that contain references to the same object. Inthis case, the variables named var and v1 both contain a reference to the same object.

Cannot be assigned to type C

However, the reference to the object of the class B cannot be assigned to a reference variable of any other type, including type C . An attempt to do so is shown in Listing 9 .

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Xna game studio. OpenStax CNX. Feb 28, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11634/1.6
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