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This study was designed to provide insights through the eyes of practicing Illinois school superintendents regarding their perceptions of the essential knowledge and skills superintendents need to be successful school district leaders. This study sought to answer the following question: What essential knowledge and skills do superintendents need to be successful school district leaders? Since educational leadership professors design and deliver superintendent preparation programs, they will benefit from the perspectives of practicing school superintendents. Therefore, the study also sought to identify Illinois superintendents' perspectives on improving district-level leadership preparation programs through the following open-ended questions:

  1. What knowledge and skills should be included in superintendent preparation programs to prepare candidates for success in the superintendency?
  2. What advice would superintendents offer professors of educational administration to improve superintendent preparation programs?

Theoretical framework

Expectations for superintendents have shifted dramatically in recent years. Traditionally, the role of superintendent was defined as chief executive officer (CEO) of the school district. Duties included managing the district’s budget, overseeing and acting on personnel decisions, facilities, transportation, and maintenance as well as the chief communicator and spokesperson for the district. These responsibilities are still necessary, but no longer sufficient, for effective district leadership. Superintendents’ success is now measured not only by sound fiscal management and lack of conflict, but also by evidence of complex leadership skills to engage board members, educators, parents and the community to meet “nonnegotiable goals for instruction and achievement” (Marzano, p.21)

Present and future superintendents must focus specifically on creating and sustaining systems that support learning by students, teachers, principals, parents – indeed entire learning communities. “When central offices (led by the superintendent) participate productively in teaching and learning improvement, everyone in the central office orients their work in meaningful ways toward supporting the development of schools’ capacity for high-quality teaching and expanding students’ opportunities to learn” (Honig, et al).

The shift in emphasis from CEO to instructional leader writ large begins with strategic planning focused on student learning (Marzano, 2009). Leadership responsibility essentially means synthesizing the needs of many stakeholders and then focusing the attention, energies, and actions of the entire district to achieve its goals (Reeves, 2011). Honig et. al (2010) conclude in their study of effective urban districts “that central offices have vital roles to play in developing systems of support for district wide teaching and learning improvement” (p. 12).

There are two aspects of strategic planning. First, knowing what to do to strengthen student learning is critical. The superintendent plays a critical role in guiding principals to move in the right direction and then in providing necessary support for success (Elmore, 2003). Reeves (2011) reports that districts with higher levels of focus not only have higher levels of student achievement, but they are also more capable of implementing other essential leadership and teaching strategies. Strategic leadership also involves knowing what not to do. Effective district level leaders seek out actions with high impact and high authority and intentionally elect not to take actions with either high influence or low results. “A series of disconnected initiatives is not a system” (Fullan, 2005, p. 87) and will likely result in more of the same as opposed to system wide improvements needed.

Questions & Answers

how environment affect demand and supply of commodity ?
Amos Reply
Wht at the criteria for market ?
Amos
what is difference between monitory policy and fiscal policy?
Malik Reply
monetary policy is a policy thrust by National Govt(CBN) to influence government spending, purchase &taxes
Frank
necessity of economics
Pamela Reply
I will say want,choice,opportunity cost,scarcity,scale of preference
Alao
what is monopoly market.How price output are determined under monopoly market
bisham
b) Monopoly market is an impecfect market where s single firm having the innovation to produce a particular commodity.Prices are determined through output since there are no other competitive.
Frank
Monopoly market:firm has market power & does not respond to market price
Frank
Explain the process of price determination under perfect competition market with suitable diagram
bisham Reply
Price determination under perfect competition via this process :firms have no market power to influence price rather firms respond to market price.
Frank
price is different from demand- demand is amount of commodity
Effah Reply
demand is amount /quantity of commodity a potential buyer is willing to buy at a given price at market
Frank
demand is a desire of customer on commodity with the ability to pay it and willing to buy it at given price of commodity
Harika
demand is price of what
Faith Reply
show that shortrun average cost
Baby Reply
what is economics
Mbah Reply
what is money
Mbah
what is money
Mbah
Difine macro economics
agaba
money is a medium of exchange between goods and services,maybe inform of currency.
Wesonga
Economics is study of how human beings strive to satisfy numerous wants using limited available resources.
Wesonga
how do you find the maximum number of workers the firms should employ order to produce where there are increasing returns
Jane
what are implications of computing national income?.
agaba
pl
MUDASIRU
what is the formulae for calculating national income
MUDASIRU
it calculated by value added method
Praveen
classify the production units like agriculture, banking, transport etc
Praveen
money is anything that is generally acceptetable for human
Ogbaji
Estimate the net value added(NVA) at fixed cost by each industrial structure
Praveen
definition of unemployment
Adam Reply
what are the causes of unemployment?
Mbubi Reply
The main causes of unemployment are listed below. 1. Frictional unemployment 2. Cyclical unemployment 3. Structural unemployment
assani
We can also categorize the causes on a broader sense as: 1. Political and 2. Social cause As unemployeement root causes are embaded in this two.
Yonathan
would opportunity cost exist if there was no scarcity?
assani
yes just because the opportunity cost arose when there is Alternative to choose among the alternatives.
BADAMASIU
I am thinking that, if our resources were unlimited, then there wouldn't be any need to forgo some wants. Hence the inexistence if opportunity cost
assani
Politics
Job
politics has done what?
assani
consider time assani
Mary
I'm Emmanuel,...I taught the main cause is the change in gov't.
Emmanuel
...Lack of capital to set up a firm respectively
Emmanuel
🙈
Emmanuel
I would like to bring in Educational levels can also be the cause the cause of the problem respectively
Emmanuel
I think the main causes of unemployment is lack of INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT OVER POPULATION OVER DEPENDENT ON GOVERNMENT LACK OF SELF EMPOWERMENT...
ananti
lack of skills among the new generation is the serious issue.
Vishal
Where I come from , I don't see why education or personal aspects seem to do with unimployment, technically the motivation and eigerness in all works of live is there , dispite the cultural influence and physical bearriors;the thing we lacking is Government Support and open market ethics.
Joe
sorry about that-(repation). We have a over powering ethical political system that's displacing the marketing asspects of economy and causing large scale unemployment right across the board...
Joe
can someone Explain Expansionary Monetary Policy and Contractionary Monetary Policy Using one of the instrument of Monetary Policy? Please am kinda lost here?. ta
Emmanuel Reply
using a graph show the case of substitute and compliment goods
Ade Reply
can anyone give me a simple explanation to Five Sector Macroeconomics?
Emmanuel
Can someone please define what economics is
jason Reply
economics simply is a social science subject that study human behavior.
dajan
economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means that has alternative uses
Alao
Can someone please tell me how to calculate GDP
Emmanuel
emmanual kapal to calculate GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has three method in calculating it (1)income approach (2) expenditure approach (3) value added method
Alao
thanks Alae
Emmanuel
u are welcome
Alao
in basic terms economics is revered to as battery system, it date back to when Men sees the need to exchange sapless goods and produce to gain , either wealth , basic necessities or to establish trading ties for personal benefit or social asspects in terms of coexistence and continuity, future .
Joe
what is the law of demand
Berlinda Reply
keep other thing constant, when the price increases demand decrease when the price decreases demand increases of the commodity.
sj
all things being equal,quantity demanded decrease as price increase and increase as price decrease
Seth
there's practial joke to it ..." the higher the demand ; scarcity, increase in production and drop in quality"... quite the controversy - for example China vs Europe, United States and we are all boxed up in between somewhere...
Joe
Other thing remain constant the low price of commodity the high quantity of commodity and vice versa is true
Baraka
Explain Effective demand
Anita Reply
What is effective demand
Anita
like Modi is in demand...best example of effective demand
Pranav
Don't get you
Anita
Anita you mean you don't get me or who?
Onyeking
level of demand that represents a real intention to purchase by people with the means to pay
Pranav
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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