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Schools are under tremendous pressure to make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). Test preparation receives so much emphasis that teachers have had to reduce or eliminate instruction in subjects other than those to be tested. Abrams&Madaus (2003) discovered that “in some states, 80% of the elementary schools spend 20% of their instructional time preparing for end-of-grade tests” (p. 32). (Author) (2009) summarized research by Klein (2005) which found that students “are coached on how to take standardized tests, subjected to pep rallies to get them revved up to do their best on high-stakes tests, treated to breakfast at school on the day of testing, given sugar snacks just before testing, and presented with gift certificates to stores in the local mall when they do well on the state tests” (p. 51-52).

All students are required to make AYP by 2014 in reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. Guilfoyle (2006), however, found that “over 19,000 schools nationwide failed to make AYP in 2002-2003; more than 11,000 were identified as being in need of improvement” (p. 10). Hoff (2008) added that “almost 30,000 schools in the United States failed to make adequate yearly progress. . .in the 2007-2008 school year,” and “half of those schools missed their achievement goals for two or more years, putting almost one in five of the nation’s public schools in some stage of federally mandated process to improve student achievement.”

Unintended consequences of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, which includes the AYP mandate, are its de facto redefinition of the principal’s role as an instructional leader and the amount of time and collaboration required from school leaders to help teachers improve their teaching skills. Gaziel (1995) reported “A serious discrepancy between the amount of time principals spend doing important tasks and the time they think they should spend on them” (p. 184). Making AYP, the end-product of data analyses and detailed planning, means that principals must have the knowledge and ability to make decisions about curriculum, instruction, and professional development, a unique requirement for administrators who were trained as managers, not as instructional leaders.

Changing the principal-as-manager paradigm begins with a vision of the knowledge and skills instructional leaders should have. Jazzar and Algozzine (2006) advised those considering change that “it is difficult to define the role of a principal as the instructional leader” (p. 106), but “the educational reform movement of the last two decades has focused a great deal of attention on that role” (p. 104).

The winds of change

As pressure increased on schools to make AYP, state boards of education focused their attention on principals as curriculum specialists and discovered that few of them had been trained as instructional leaders. Alabama’s governor, responding to recommendations to change the way in which principals were being prepared in the state, commissioned a task force of teachers, civic leaders, and community representatives in 2004 to identify the knowledge and skills an instructional leader must have to increase student learning. The task force, working closely with the Southern Regional Education Board, presented its recommendations in 2005 to the State Board of Education (SBE), which approved the findings and created new standards for educational administration programs throughout the state.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Preparing instructional leaders. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11324/1.1
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