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Box 1: bite recruitment in polybia wasps

Colonies of the paper wasp Polybia are much smaller than most honeybee colonies. They also have a distinctly unique method of forager recruiting completely dissimilar to the honeybee waggle dance. The paper wasp’s approach to recruiting foragers to food sources is much more aggressive. As Sean O’Donnell shows in his study, the wasp recruiters bite one another, a signal that was used by scouts to recruit other wasps to begin foraging. He found that bitten wasps have an increased likelihood to initiate foraging. In order to test his hypothesis, he removed active foragers from nest sites and found that in relation to the control sites, foraging greatly decreased throughout the following days. This, he noted caused a marked decrease in food gathering and as he had predicted a drastic increase in the rate at which non-foraging worker wasps were bitten. Those that were bitten often began a foraging role soon after. It is important to note that just as the honeybees cope with inaccuracy of waggle dances by deferring to prior knowledge on food sources, some paper wasps initiated foraging even without being bitten (O’Donnell 2006).

Olfactory communication proves to be even more advanced in honeybees and also plays an important role in the recruitment process. In addition to scents gathered from the environment, Thom et al. in their experiments proved that the returning recruiters secrete as many as four complex pheromones while engaging in the waggle dance. They showed, by injecting one such chemical into a test population, that it increased the number of recruits that left the hive after the waggle-dance. As many as four distinct chemical signals, produced only by waggle-dancers during their runs have been shown to increase the number of recruits that begin foraging (Thom et al. 2007). Von Frisch’s experiments also showed that a nectar scent carried by a forager can be traced by a dance-observer to a particular flower, thereby increasing the accuracy of the recruitment process (Von Frisch 1974).

The variability of waggle-dance communication

The effectiveness of the waggle-dance is highly variable within individual honeybee colonies. Colonies with eggs fertilized by multiple males (multiple-patriline) have been shown to increase foraging rates, larger stores of food and higher individual health compared to single-patriline colonies (Mattila et al. 2008). That is to say, queens that breed with more than one male increase the productivity of their nest. It is strange that decreased relatedness within the brood would in fact increase productivity, but the reasons are clear. What Mattila and her colleagues discovered was that in a genetically diverse population, worker efficiency was improved by the genetic variability of communicational behaviors. They showed that multiple-patriline colonies had an increase in foraging rates of 27-78% and engaged in 36% percent more waggle dances daily than genetically uniform colonies (Matilla et al. 2008). Not only does genetic diversity increase resistance to diseases in the hive, but it also allows for varying degrees of specificity in waggle dances. Decreased relatedness creates an increased need for more highly specific communication, as well as an increased variability in the waggle-dance. This increased variety of dance, according to the Tuned Error Hypothesis, may also lead to a larger search area. This is not necessarily a negative outcome. It occurs also when workers witness only a limited number of incomplete waggle runs and perhaps could allow bees, even at a short range, to find unexplored food resources next to the one being indicated by the dancer. Since the dances that indicate more remote locations are more precise and last longer, the search area at both close and far distances should theoretically be comparable (Tanner et al. 2008).

Questions & Answers

what is math number
Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Akash
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I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
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Vedant
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
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I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
If f(x) = x-2 then, f(3) when 5f(x+1) 5((3-2)+1) 5(1+1) 5(2) 10
Augustine
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
make 5/4 into a mixed number, make that a decimal, and then multiply 32 by the decimal 5/4 turns out to be
AJ
how
Sheref
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
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is it a question of log
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Commplementary angles
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Nharnhar
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
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What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
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how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
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why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
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I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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