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Listing 3 . The Populator class.
class Populator{ public static void fillIt(Collection ref){ref.add(new Integer(4)); ref.add(new Integer(4));ref.add(new Integer(3)); ref.add(new Integer(2));ref.add(new Integer(1)); }//end fillIt()}//end class populator

Don't know, don't care

As you can see in the above fragment, the fillIt method receives the reference to the TreeSet object as type Collection . This method doesn't know, and doesn't care, what the actual type of the object is. All itcares about is that the object is a Collection object. (Otherwise, the object's reference couldn't be passed in as a parameter. A type mismatch would occur.)

Because the incoming parameter is a reference to a Collection object, the fillIt method can call the add method on the object with confidence that the behavior of the add method will be appropriate for the specific type of object involved. (For example, the behavior of the add method for an object of the TreeSet class will probably be different from thebehavior of the add method for an object of some other class that implements the Collection interface.)

Polymorphism in action

The great thing about polymorphic behavior is that the author of the fillIt method doesn't need to be concerned about the implementation details of the add method.

Add five elements with some duplicates

The code in the fillIt method adds five elements to the object. Each element is a reference to a new object of type Integer . Two of the objects encapsulate the int value 4, and thus are duplicates.

The int values encapsulated in the Integer objects are not in ascending order. Rather, they are added to the object in descending order. (They could be added in any order and the end result would be the same.)

Filter out the duplicates

The add method for the TreeSet object filters out the duplicate element in order to satisfy the contract of the Collection interface.

Notification of duplicates

In this case, the author didn't care what happens in the case of duplicate elements. If the author of the fillIt method does care what happens in the case of duplicates, she can find out when an object is a duplicate.

According to the contract of the Collection interface, the add method must return true if the call to the method modifies the contents of the object and must return false if the collection does not permit duplicates and the collection already contains the specified element.

Sort the elements

Even though the elements are passed to the add method in descending order (or could be passed in any other order), they are stored and maintained in the TreeSet object in such a way that they can later be accessed in ascending order.

The TreeSet object is now populated

When the fillIt method returns, the TreeSet object contains four (not five) elements with no duplicates. Each element is a reference to an object of type Integer . Those references are maintained in such a way as to make them accessible in ascending order, based on the int values encapsulated in each of the Integer objects.

Get an Iterator object

Returning now to the doIt method in the Worker class that was called in Listing 1 , the statement in Listing 4 calls the iterator method on the TreeSet object's reference that is stored in the reference variable of type Collection .

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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