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Grade 7

Processing: textiles

Module 17

The textile industry

  1. The history of the textile industry

The textile industry came into existence when people discovered that the cover of hair from some animals (e.g. the sheep) could be used without slaughtering the animal. A method for using these fibres was then developed, through spinning them together to make yarn. The fibrous nature of some plants, like the flax plant, also made it possible to spin threads which could be woven into fabric.

Today, most fabrics are knitted or woven. Fibres that are used may be natural and may be obtained from plants or animals.

Fibres may also be synthetic (produced artificially). Such textiles are produced from minerals like coal and petroleum. Examples of artificial fibres are nylon, acrylic and polyester fibres. Sometimes artificial fibres are combined with natural fibres. In this way we, for example, obtain polyester cotton.

See how many garment labels that indicate that polyester-cotton was used for the manufacture of the fabric you can find.

  1. Qualities of fibres

The length, density, strength, fineness and elasticity, as well as resistance to chemicals and moisture, determine the quality of the textile that is manufactured from a fibre. In this way, the qualities of the different types of fibres will determine the qualities of the fabrics that are made from them. The way in which fibres are knitted or woven also plays a role.

That is why a garment should have a label to describe the textile from which it is made, as well as give guidelines about how the garment should be taken care of or washed.

Study the following examples of such labels and talk about them in your groups:

  1. Doing research on the different clothing fabrics

Assignment 1:

[lo 1.1]

  • Study the labels from 3 garments and complete the table that follows:
Garment Description of textile Washing instructions Texture of fabric Fabric mass Elasticity of fabric
E.g.: T-shirt 100% cotton Cold wash hand wash Soft Light Not much

Because different types of fabric have different qualities, people choose different types of textiles for specific purposes. Soft fabrics are usually selected for garments that will be worn against the body, while other fabrics are needed for warm jerseys and jackets.

  • The following table presents a summary of the qualities of different types of fibres and also indicates how articles made from these fibres should be taken care of.
Fibre Qualities Care
Cotton CoolCan absorb moistureLittle elasticityCreases easilyVery flammableSoft/coarse, depending on weave Machine or hand wash / LukewarmRinse thoroughlyHang up to dry or spin dry. Coloured cotton is faded by the sunIron with warm ironWhites may be bleached
Wool Keeps in warmthElasticWeak when wetCan shrink Does not crease easily Dry clean / Hand washDry in shade / Lay down flatAvoid ironing, or cool iron
Artificial fibres StrongDo not absorb moistureDry easilyCrease resistantDo nor shrink or stretch (Lycra is an exception)Melts at high temperatures Warm wash- machine or handHang up or spin dryDoes not need ironing
  • Make use of the information you have gathered to select a suitable fabric for:
  • a school shirt
  • a winter jacket
  • long trousers for a boy
  • Fabric qualities:

Follow the instructions and draw up a table to record your observations.

  1. Durability :

Choose three different types of fabric. You need to be reasonably sure that you know what fibres were used during the manufacturing process.

  • Stretch the fabric over the open end of a tin and secure it in position with an elastic band.
  • Rub a stone against the fabric, using even movements until a hole is formed.
  • Compare the strength of the different fibres.
  • Flammability :

Take the same pieces of fabric and hold them close to a flame. What do you observe?

  1. Absorption of moisture :

Place the fabrics in water to see which one absorbs water most easily.

Place the wet fabric outside to see which one dries the fastest.

Fabric 1. 2. 3.
Absorption of moisture


LO 2
TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDINGThe learner will be able to understand and apply relevant technological knowledge ethically and responsibly.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
Structures :2.1 demonstrates knowledge and understanding of structures.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Technology grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 10, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11032/1.1
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