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Grade 7

Processing: textiles

Module 17

The textile industry

  1. The history of the textile industry

The textile industry came into existence when people discovered that the cover of hair from some animals (e.g. the sheep) could be used without slaughtering the animal. A method for using these fibres was then developed, through spinning them together to make yarn. The fibrous nature of some plants, like the flax plant, also made it possible to spin threads which could be woven into fabric.

Today, most fabrics are knitted or woven. Fibres that are used may be natural and may be obtained from plants or animals.

Fibres may also be synthetic (produced artificially). Such textiles are produced from minerals like coal and petroleum. Examples of artificial fibres are nylon, acrylic and polyester fibres. Sometimes artificial fibres are combined with natural fibres. In this way we, for example, obtain polyester cotton.

See how many garment labels that indicate that polyester-cotton was used for the manufacture of the fabric you can find.

  1. Qualities of fibres

The length, density, strength, fineness and elasticity, as well as resistance to chemicals and moisture, determine the quality of the textile that is manufactured from a fibre. In this way, the qualities of the different types of fibres will determine the qualities of the fabrics that are made from them. The way in which fibres are knitted or woven also plays a role.

That is why a garment should have a label to describe the textile from which it is made, as well as give guidelines about how the garment should be taken care of or washed.

Study the following examples of such labels and talk about them in your groups:

  1. Doing research on the different clothing fabrics

Assignment 1:

[lo 1.1]

  • Study the labels from 3 garments and complete the table that follows:
Garment Description of textile Washing instructions Texture of fabric Fabric mass Elasticity of fabric
E.g.: T-shirt 100% cotton Cold wash hand wash Soft Light Not much

Because different types of fabric have different qualities, people choose different types of textiles for specific purposes. Soft fabrics are usually selected for garments that will be worn against the body, while other fabrics are needed for warm jerseys and jackets.

  • The following table presents a summary of the qualities of different types of fibres and also indicates how articles made from these fibres should be taken care of.
Fibre Qualities Care
Cotton CoolCan absorb moistureLittle elasticityCreases easilyVery flammableSoft/coarse, depending on weave Machine or hand wash / LukewarmRinse thoroughlyHang up to dry or spin dry. Coloured cotton is faded by the sunIron with warm ironWhites may be bleached
Wool Keeps in warmthElasticWeak when wetCan shrink Does not crease easily Dry clean / Hand washDry in shade / Lay down flatAvoid ironing, or cool iron
Artificial fibres StrongDo not absorb moistureDry easilyCrease resistantDo nor shrink or stretch (Lycra is an exception)Melts at high temperatures Warm wash- machine or handHang up or spin dryDoes not need ironing
  • Make use of the information you have gathered to select a suitable fabric for:
  • a school shirt
  • a winter jacket
  • long trousers for a boy
  • Fabric qualities:

Follow the instructions and draw up a table to record your observations.

  1. Durability :

Choose three different types of fabric. You need to be reasonably sure that you know what fibres were used during the manufacturing process.

  • Stretch the fabric over the open end of a tin and secure it in position with an elastic band.
  • Rub a stone against the fabric, using even movements until a hole is formed.
  • Compare the strength of the different fibres.
  • Flammability :

Take the same pieces of fabric and hold them close to a flame. What do you observe?

  1. Absorption of moisture :

Place the fabrics in water to see which one absorbs water most easily.

Place the wet fabric outside to see which one dries the fastest.

Fabric 1. 2. 3.
Absorption of moisture


LO 2
TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDINGThe learner will be able to understand and apply relevant technological knowledge ethically and responsibly.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
Structures :2.1 demonstrates knowledge and understanding of structures.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Technology grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 10, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11032/1.1
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