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A major step in medicine occurred with the establishment in 1893 of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, with a remarkable faculty, which included the pathologist William H. Welch who was among the first to introduce microscopy and bacteriology into the country, the great clinician William Osler and surgeon William S. Halsted. Within a few years Hopkins' former students and professors carried the Hopkins' system to all parts of the United States. (Ref. 125 )

On the political scene, RUTHERFORD B. HAYES was announced president in a disputed election by action of the National Electoral Commission by a strict party vote. Hayes refused to run again in 1880 and a "dark horse" GENERAL JAMES A. GARFIELD ran away with the nomination and finally the election. On his death by assassination 4 months later, his vice-president, CHESTER ARTHUR assumed office. Reform in the civil service commission regulation was made by law in 1883. Overall, some believe Arthur's was the best Republican administration between Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt, but in the 1884 election, the Democrat GROVER CLEVELAND won the office. But Cleveland made many enemies, being rude to the press, offending Union veterans, vetoing hundreds of pension bills and trying to stop the "free coinage" of silver under the Bland-Allison Act. Cleveland lost the next election (1888) to the Republican BENJAMIN HARRISON, who made a dignified but ineffective president and his Congress wanted no legislation other than raids on the treasury and hold-ups of the consumer. As a result, Cleveland was returned for a second term in the elections of 1892. There followed the worst industrial depression since the 1870s. It was a period of soup kitchens, ragged armies of unemployed and desperate strikes. The party in power is always blamed for all hard times, so in 1894 the Republicans won again, with WILLIAM McKINLEY defeating the "boy orator of the Platte", William Jennings Bryan.

The spanish-american war

In 1897 Cuba was in revolt against Spain's inept rule and American journalists, such as William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, in a race for circulation, played up some atrocities and Cuban concentration camps in the American press. Soon there was a cry to "do something" about Cuba. Just as a new Spanish premiere did promise Cuba a measure of home rule and reform, however, the U.S.S. Maine battleship was mysteriously blown up in Havana harbor, with heavy loss of life. The clamor for war with Spain then became more than the weak President McKinley could stand and in place of accepting a peacef ul solution already offered by Spain, which even included ceding Cuba to the U.S., McKinley allowed Congress to declare war in April of 1898. The American fleets immediately went to work, with one Atlantic squadron blockading Havana and another protecting the U.S. coast. Commodore Dewey took the Pacific fleet into Manila Bay in the Philippines and without losing a single man reduced the Spanish fleet there to junk. The obsolete Spanish vessels there were no match for the newer American ships. Even so, the United States Naval bombardments in both Manila and the later Santiago Bay of Cuba, proved embarrassingly inaccurate, leading to a world-wide effort to improve long-range gunnery. (Ref. 279 ) After 10 weeks of fighting the U.S. had wrested an American empire from Spain. The ground war to "save Cuba" was a popular one, but sad because of lack of preparedness of the continental forces. For every one of the 289 men killed in battle, 13 men died of disease. If the Spanish forces had been in any way organized and reasonably led, the ragged U.S. forces could never have invaded the island, but they did. Then when the Spanish navy sailed out of Santiago Bay to be destroyed by the guns of Admiral Sampson's Atlantic squadron in July of 1898 the war was over. At the formal Treaty of Paris in the fall of that year, both Cuba and Porto Rico, as well as the Philippines, became U.S. possessions. For the latter, this country did give Spain $2,000,000.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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