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A major step in medicine occurred with the establishment in 1893 of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, with a remarkable faculty, which included the pathologist William H. Welch who was among the first to introduce microscopy and bacteriology into the country, the great clinician William Osler and surgeon William S. Halsted. Within a few years Hopkins' former students and professors carried the Hopkins' system to all parts of the United States. (Ref. 125 )

On the political scene, RUTHERFORD B. HAYES was announced president in a disputed election by action of the National Electoral Commission by a strict party vote. Hayes refused to run again in 1880 and a "dark horse" GENERAL JAMES A. GARFIELD ran away with the nomination and finally the election. On his death by assassination 4 months later, his vice-president, CHESTER ARTHUR assumed office. Reform in the civil service commission regulation was made by law in 1883. Overall, some believe Arthur's was the best Republican administration between Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt, but in the 1884 election, the Democrat GROVER CLEVELAND won the office. But Cleveland made many enemies, being rude to the press, offending Union veterans, vetoing hundreds of pension bills and trying to stop the "free coinage" of silver under the Bland-Allison Act. Cleveland lost the next election (1888) to the Republican BENJAMIN HARRISON, who made a dignified but ineffective president and his Congress wanted no legislation other than raids on the treasury and hold-ups of the consumer. As a result, Cleveland was returned for a second term in the elections of 1892. There followed the worst industrial depression since the 1870s. It was a period of soup kitchens, ragged armies of unemployed and desperate strikes. The party in power is always blamed for all hard times, so in 1894 the Republicans won again, with WILLIAM McKINLEY defeating the "boy orator of the Platte", William Jennings Bryan.

The spanish-american war

In 1897 Cuba was in revolt against Spain's inept rule and American journalists, such as William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, in a race for circulation, played up some atrocities and Cuban concentration camps in the American press. Soon there was a cry to "do something" about Cuba. Just as a new Spanish premiere did promise Cuba a measure of home rule and reform, however, the U.S.S. Maine battleship was mysteriously blown up in Havana harbor, with heavy loss of life. The clamor for war with Spain then became more than the weak President McKinley could stand and in place of accepting a peacef ul solution already offered by Spain, which even included ceding Cuba to the U.S., McKinley allowed Congress to declare war in April of 1898. The American fleets immediately went to work, with one Atlantic squadron blockading Havana and another protecting the U.S. coast. Commodore Dewey took the Pacific fleet into Manila Bay in the Philippines and without losing a single man reduced the Spanish fleet there to junk. The obsolete Spanish vessels there were no match for the newer American ships. Even so, the United States Naval bombardments in both Manila and the later Santiago Bay of Cuba, proved embarrassingly inaccurate, leading to a world-wide effort to improve long-range gunnery. (Ref. 279 ) After 10 weeks of fighting the U.S. had wrested an American empire from Spain. The ground war to "save Cuba" was a popular one, but sad because of lack of preparedness of the continental forces. For every one of the 289 men killed in battle, 13 men died of disease. If the Spanish forces had been in any way organized and reasonably led, the ragged U.S. forces could never have invaded the island, but they did. Then when the Spanish navy sailed out of Santiago Bay to be destroyed by the guns of Admiral Sampson's Atlantic squadron in July of 1898 the war was over. At the formal Treaty of Paris in the fall of that year, both Cuba and Porto Rico, as well as the Philippines, became U.S. possessions. For the latter, this country did give Spain $2,000,000.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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