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By leadership, I mean influencing others actions in achieving desirable ends . . . . Managing is maintainingefficiently and effectively current organisational arrangements . . . . I prize both managing and leading and attach no special valueto either since different settings and times call for varied responses. (p. xx)

Leadership and management need to be given equal prominence if schools are to operate effectively and achievetheir objectives.“Leading and managing are distinct, but both are important . . . . The challenge of modern organisations requiresthe objective perspective of the manager as well as the flashes of vision and commitment wise leadership provides”(Bolman&Deal, 1997, p. xiii-xiv).

The English National College for School Leadership.

The contemporary emphasis on leadership rather than management is illustrated starkly by the opening of theEnglish National College for School Leadership (NCSL) in November 2000. NCSL”s stress on leadership has led to a neglect of management. Visionary and inspirational leadership are advocatedbut much less attention is given to the structures and processes required to implement these ideas successfully. A fuller discussionof the NCSL may be found in Bush (2006).

The significance of the educational context

Educational management as a field of study and practice was derived from management principles first appliedto industry and commerce, mainly in the United States. Theory development largely involved the application of industrial modelsto educational settings. As the subject became established as an academic field in its own right, its theorists and practitionersbegan to develop alternative models based on their observation of, and experience in, schools and colleges. By the 21st century themain theories, featured in this chapter, have either been developed in the educational context or have been adapted from industrialmodels to meet the specific requirements of schools and colleges. Educational management has progressed from being a new fielddependent upon ideas developed in other settings to become an established field with its own theories and research.

Conceptualising educational management

Leadership and management are often regarded as essentially practical activities. Practitioners andpolicy-makers tend to be dismissive of theories and concepts for their alleged remoteness from the“real”school situation. Willower (1980, p. 2), for example, asserts that“the application of theories by practicing administrators [is]a difficult and problematic undertaking. Indeed, it is clear that theories aresimply not used very much in the realm of practice.”This comment suggests that theory and practice are regarded as separate aspects of educational leadership and management. Academics develop andrefine theory while managers engage in practice. In short, there is a theory/ practice divide, or“gap”(English, 2002):

The theory-practice gap stands as the Gordian Knot of educational administration. Rather than be cut, it hasbecome a permanent fixture of the landscape because it is embedded in the way we construct theories for use . . . The theory-practicegap will be removed when we construct different and better theories that predict the effects of practice. (p. 1, 3)

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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