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Animation

Since the earliest days of animation, two-dimensional (2D) animation has been created by presenting a series of drawings to the viewer in rapid succession where each drawing was similar to but slightlydifferent from the previous drawing. Because of the property of human vision to blur one Image Into the next, if the images are sufficiently similar and theyare presented in rapid succession, the human mind perceives the series of images as continuous motion. This is how motion pictures work, and it is also how thecartoons that you see on television work.

Costumes

Animation can be created in a couple of different ways in Scratch. One way is through the use of something called costumes . For example, when you createa new project in Scratch, an image of a cat having two costumes is automatically added to the project. Image D shows a screen shot of the center panel in the user interface for a new project with the Costumes tab selected.

Image d. the costumes tab for a new scratch project.

Missing image.
Image D. The costumes tab for a new Scratch project.

Image D shows a lot more than just the current costumes. The current costumes are shown in the upper-left corner of Image D .

The cat sprite has two costumes

As you can see, the cat sprite has two costumes, which are really two different images of the cat. The images are designed to make it look like thecat is walking if the two images are repeated in rapid succession. You can also see that each costume has a name, with the default names in this case being:

  • costume1
  • costume2

If you choose to do so, you can click in the boxes containing the names and modify them. Also, if you choose to do so, you can use the built-in drawing program to modifythe drawing. However, most of that is beyond the scope of this module so we won't get into it here.

With only two costumes for the cat, the walking motion is not very smooth. Somewhere on the Scratch website, I saw a project that had sixteendifferent costumes for the cat. When those sixteen different costumes are displayed in succession, the cat appears to walk very smoothly.

Loop blocks

If you click the tan Control button in the Scratch user interface, you will expose a large number of blocks that are generally used to control the flow of the program. The following control blocks that areexposed by that button can be used to construct loops:

repeat (numeric value) - (see

The repeat (numeric value) block

The repeat (numeric value) block (referred to hereafter simply as the repeat block) provides the mechanism by which you can cause a set of actions to be executed a specified number of times. (See Image E .)

You create a repeat block that will do something useful by inserting programming blocks into the mouth of a repeat block. When you drag a raw repeat block into the center panel, it looks like the tan image shown in Image E .

Image e. various scratch blocks.

Missing image.
Image E. Various Scratch blocks.

Setting the number of repeats (iterations)

By default, the white box in the repeat block contains a literal numeric value. You can modify that value and specify the number of times thatthe code in the repeat block will be executed. When you use a literal value, the code will be executed the same number of times every time you run theprogram.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Teaching beginners to code. OpenStax CNX. May 27, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11498/1.20
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