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Questions

Our questions focus on part of each assumption.

How much emphasis should schools place on reading, mathematics and science? What role should art, physical education, social studies, and music play in school classrooms?

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Do standardized tests measure students’ performance on content standards adequately? Should schools be judged on students’ scores on standardized tests? Is it important that classroom observations of students (by teachers or others) are not included.

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Will students and teachers be motivated by the tests. Stiggins (2004) argued that while high achieving students may be motivated by tests many students who find the tests difficult will give up and so be less motivated. Do you agree with Stiggins or the assumption underlying NCLB?

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Are the unintended consequences minimal? Is classroom instruction improving or becoming narrowly focused on test taking skills and content?

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References

Fuhrman, S. H. (2004). Introduction, In S. H. Fuhrman&R. F. Elmore (Eds). Redesigning accountability systems for education . (pp. 3-14). New York: Teachers College Press.

The reflective practitioner: action research as a way to deal with the isolation of teaching

Observers of education have sometimes noted that classroom teachers tend to be isolated from each other by the very nature of their work (Lortie, 1975; Zeichner, 2007). A teacher may be constantly surrounded by students, but chances are that no colleague will be there to witness what the teacher does in class. Conversation about classroom experiences do happen, but they tend to happen outside of class time—perhaps over lunch, or before or after school. This circumstance does not prevent teachers’ from sharing experiences or concerns related to teaching altogether, but delaying conversations probably makes them less frequent or likely. Fewer collegial conversations, in turn, can limit teachers by reducing their opportunities to learn from each other—or even to realize many of the instructional options open to them.

Action research addresses teachers’ isolation because it promotes not only reflection on practice, but also collaboration and sharing (Hayes, 2006). The benefits of sharing may be the most obvious when an action research project is actually published for a wider audience. Over the past 20 years, numerous teachers and other educators have published studies of their own teaching or their own students’ learning. There are now entire books compiling such accounts (for example, Samaras&Freese, 2006; Tidwell&Fitzgerald, 2006), a comprehensive handbook discussing aspects of teachers’ studies of their own teaching (Loughran, et al., 2004), several journals whose purpose is largely or solely to publish examples of action research (one, for example, is called simply Action Research), and a variety of blogs and websites that post action research projects. Collectively these publications are a rich source of practical wisdom from which individual teachers can learn and think about their own teaching.

But an action research project does not have to published formally in order to promote collaboration or sharing. The benefits can happen locally—even within a single school building—whenever a teacher plans, carries out, and talks about a research initiative. A teacher named Betty Ragland, for example, described how this happened in her highly unusual teaching situation, a juvenile correctional facility (Ragland, 2006). The facility functioned somewhat like a prison for youth convicted of various crimes. As you might suppose, Ms Ragland’s students experienced behavior problems and conflicts more often than usual in schools, to the extent that teachers sometimes felt physically vulnerable themselves, as well as isolated from help if serious conflicts developed during class. To deal with these stresses, Ms Ragland initiated a self-study of her practice in which she wrote and thought about her experiences and her reactions to the experiences. She shared the results, both in writing and through meetings, with fellow teachers. In the course of doing so, she developed a number of insights which colleagues found helpful in formulating their own thinking:

Questions & Answers

what is economic
Charles Reply
what are the type of economic
Charles
macroeconomics,microeconomics,positive economics and negative economics
Gladys
what are the factors of production
Gladys
process of production
Mutia
Basically factors of production are four (4) namely: 1. Entrepreneur 2. Capital 3. Labour and; 4. Land but there has been a new argument to include an addition one to the the numbers to 5 which is "Technology"
Elisha
what is land as a factor of production
Gladys
what is Economic
Abu
economics is how individuals bussiness and governments make the best decisions to get what they want and how these choices interact in the market
Nandisha
Economics as a social science, which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means, which have alternative uses.
Yhaar
how will a country's population be equal to it's labour force
Hope Reply
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Obeng Reply
What is Economic
Governor Reply
economic
Nwosu
Economics is the social science that deals with the unlimited human wants in the face of scarce (limited in supply) resources.
Azka
what is market
Gift Reply
marker is the interaction of buying and selling
David
market refers to the interaction of the processes of buying and selling of commodities between the buyer and the seller.
stephen
market is a place where two parties gather to facilitate exchange of goods and services.
Yhaar
what are some good sources of information to find trends in various Industries
James
how do on know that marketing is going on
Mutia
what is consumption
Raj
Using revenue
Prince
What is stock market
Prince
What are the marmet function
Odirile Reply
price elasticity of demand is the degree of responsiveness of a quantity demanded to the change in price of the commodity in question.
Gladys Reply
What does elasticity mean
Prince
Elasticity means change in demand with the change in price. It is elastic if the demand changes with the price change whereas it is inelastic if the demand is not affected due to change in price
Devesh
Okay
Olatunde
meaning
KP
okay
Binta
I have a question
Binta
what is the importance of learning economics?
Thelma Reply
it helps to make the correct choice
Gladys
it helps firm to produce products that will bring more profit
Gladys
the difference between needs and wants
londiwe Reply
needs are things that we basically can't live without wants are just luxury things
Thelma
needs are things without them we can't live but want are things without we can live
KP
what is education
KP
it's a process in which we give or receiving methodical instructions
Thelma
what is mixed economy
Amex
what is a deadweight loss? how monopoly creates a deadweight loss?
Ashraf Reply
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Lamine
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Cleaford
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nura
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Cleaford
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Lamine
what is type of economic
taiwo Reply
how to understand basics of economics
Aarif Reply
what is demand schedle
Princess Reply
When you make a Scedule of the demand you made
Rodeen
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Prema Reply
What is macroeconomics
Kauna Reply
It's one of the two branches of Economics that deal with the aggregate economy.
Mayen
it's about inflation, occupation, gdp and so on
alberto
What is differences between Microeconomics and Macroeconomic?
Bethrand
microeconomics focuses on the action of individual agents in the economy such as businesses, workers and household. while macroeconomics looks at the economy as a whole. it focuses on broad issues in the economy such as government deficit, economy growth, levels of exports and imports, and
Thelma
inflationary increase in prices
Thelma
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational psychology. OpenStax CNX. May 11, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11302/1.2
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