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How non-standard interpretations can provide insight into tough problems.

Prime factorization

Note that there are other possible interpretations of prime . For example, since one can multiply integer matrices,there might be a useful concept ofprime matrices.

For example: Consider only the numbers F 1 5 9 13 that is, F k k 4 k 1 . It's easy to verify that multiplying two of these numbers still resultsin a number of the form 4 k 1 . Thus it makes sense to talk of factoring such numbers:We'd say that 45 factors into 5 9 , but 9 is consideredprime since it doesn't factor into smaller elements of F .

Interestingly, within F , we lose unique factorization: 441 9 49 21 21 , where each of 9, 21, and 49 are prime, relative to F ! (Mathematicians will then go and look for exactly whatproperty of a multiplication function are needed, to guarantee unique factorization.)

The point is, that all relations in logical formula need to be interpreted. Usually, for numbers, we usea standard interpretation, but one can consider those formulas in different, non-standard interpretations!

The poincarDisc

A long outstanding problem was that of Euclid's parallel postulate: Given a line and a point not on the line,how many lines parallel to the first go through that point? Euclid took this as an axiom(unable to prove that it followed from his other axioms). Non-Euclidean geometries of Lobachevsky and Riemann took differentpostulates, and got different geometries. However, it was not clear whether these geometrieswere sound whether one could derive two different results that were inconsistent with each other.

Henri Poincardeveloped an ingenious method for showing that certain non-Euclidean geometries are consistentor at least, as consistent as Euclidean geometry.Remember that in Euclidean geometry, the conceptspointandlineare left undefined, and axioms are built on top of them ( e.g. ,two different lines have at most one point in common). While it's usually left to common sense to interpretpoint,line, anda point is on a line, any interpretation which satisfies the axiomsmeans that all theorems of geometry will hold.

The Poincardisc is one such interpretation:pointis taken to meana point in the interior of the unit disc, andlineis taken to meana circular arc which meets the unit disc at right angles. So a statement liketwo points determine a linecan be interpreted as

[*] For any two pointsinside the disc, there is exactly one circular arc which meets the disc at right angles.
Indeed, this interpretation preserves all of Euclid's postulates except for the parallel postulate. You can see thatfor a given line and a point not on it, there are an infinite number of parallel (that is, non-intersecting) lines.

Some lines in the Poincardisc, including several lines parallel to a line L through a point p.

(Note that the distance function is very different within the Poincardisc; in fact the perimeter of the disc is off at infinity.Angles, however, do happen to be preserved.)

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Intro to logic. OpenStax CNX. Jan 29, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10154/1.20
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