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High speed charged particles are required for nuclear and atomic investigations. Cyclotron is one of the devices popularly known as “particle accelerator” to accelerate charged particle to a very high speed. It uses “crossed” magnetic and electric fields at right angles to achieve the objective. The chief role of magnetic field is to make the process of acceleration confined to a small and manageable region. As far as the change in speed is concerned, it is affected only by the electric field. Recall that magnetic field can not change magnitude of velocity i.e. speed.

But we should be careful in extrapolating above facts to obvious conclusions. As a matter of fact, we shall find that magnetic field actually affects the speed attained by the charged particle indirectly by controlling number of revolutions in the cyclotron. On the other hand, the speed acquired by the charged particle is independent of applied voltage. We shall explore all these aspects in detail in this module.

Acceleration due to electric field

Electric force accelerates particle only to change its speed if motion of the charged particle is in the direction of electric field. A potential difference V accelerates particle to achieve a speed as given by :

1 2 m v 2 = e V

v = 2 e V m

There is, however, difficulty in generating potential difference greater than 10 6 V. For this limiting value, the speed attained by a proton would be :

v = 2 X 1.6 X 10 - 19 X 10 6 / 1.66 X 10 - 27 v = 1.928 X 10 14 = 1.39 X 10 7 m / s

This is just 4.63 % of the speed of light and is not good enough. This speed of the particle is thus required to be subjected to repeated application of electric force. This is done linearly by electric force in what is known as “linear accelerator”. Else, we use magnetic field to bend the path of motion and present the charged particle repeatedly to electric field for acceleration as in cyclotron. We should know that there is relative size and cost comparison and advantages between linear accelerator and cyclotron. Sometimes though, the two types of accelerators are used in conjunction where cyclotron functions as the initial accelerator for the system of particle accelerators.

Working of cyclotron

The particles accelerated by cyclotron

The accelerators are used for accelerating charged elementary particles or charged ions. It can not accelerate a neutral particle. Besides, the cyclotron as described generally, is not used for accelerating light mass particles like electron or positron. The reason is that electron having negligible mass accelerates rather too quickly for repeated acceleration within the given size of cyclotron. Instead, the light mass charged particles are accelerated by a device known as “betatron” which uses torus shaped vacuum tube as secondary coil. The tube is a hollow cylinder shaped in a circle. The varying magnetic field, produced by secondary coil, sets up electric field which, in turn, accelerates electron through the tube. On the other hand, the magnetic field due to primary coil, spins the electron and keeps it in the center of the path.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Electricity and magnetism. OpenStax CNX. Oct 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10909/1.13
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