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Time Events
0 Seconds
  • Universe starts as a small, hot ball
10 -35 seconds
  • Space expands at a thousand billion billion billion times a second
10 -32 seconds
  • Space is filled by energy and matter such as quarks
10 -8 seconds
  • Matter and antimatter are formed
3 minutes
  • Quarks fuse and form hydrogen and helium
1 million years
  • Gas clouds form long strings
300 million years
  • Strings of clouds are formed, which form stars and galaxies


1. What did the universe consist of at the beginning?

2. What is the Big Bang?

3. How did the first elements originate?

4. What is a quark?

5. How did the following elements originate?

a) Be

b) Fe

6. Name the four most important forces in the universe.

7. What is antimatter and what would happen if it came near matter?

Assessment of understanding of the theory on the origin of the universe:

Do you understand the theory?

[LO 2.3]

Research Assignment 1: TELESCOPES

Write a project of four pages on the use of telescopes and the basic construction of telescopes. Hand your project in on a date set by your educator.

  • Find out more, specifically about the:
  • Hubble telescope;
  • Mcmath solar telescope in Arizona USA;
  • giant radio telescope - the Arecibo - In Puerto Rico;
  • the SAAO in Sutherland, South Africa;
  • the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) in Sutherland, completed in 2004;
  • the radio telescope at Hartbeeshoek, Gauteng.
  • Conclude your report with a review of the value of the telescope to science.[ LO 1.1; LO 1.2; LO 1.3; LO 3.1]

The Galaxies

  • Our sun is only one of an enormous collection of about two billion stars that lie in space in the shape of a fried egg with a diameter of 100 000 light-years. If you look up at the sky at night and see a band of small stars, you are looking at the Milky Way. This is actually only a view of the edge of our galaxy! The Greek word “galaxy” means “milk”.
  • The earth is approximately 300 000 light-years from the centre of our galaxy.
  • A light-year is one of the most important UNITS in ASTRONOMY that you must know. Scientists use such units because m and km are absurdly small compared to the large distances in space.


  • A light-year = the distance that light travels in one earth-year if it moves at a speed of 300 000 km/s -1

1. Calculate: a light-year

  • 365,25 days x 24 hours x 3 600 seconds x 300 000 km/s -1 = ......................................
  • Therefore: .................................................. kilometres
  • Million, billion or trillion???
1 000 000 10 6 MILLION MEGA
1 000 000 000 10 9 BILLION GIGA
1 000 000 000 000 000 10 15 TRILLION PETA

2. How many stars are there in our sky?

3. Express 10 billion billion as a number (it will have the prefix exa ).

4. Another important unit is the ASTRONOMICAL UNIT (AU) that represents the distance from the sun to the earth, namely, 150 million kilometres.

If the diameter of the sun is written in the notation 1,5 x 10 6 , how would you write the notation of the AU?

5. What is the diameter of our galaxy?

Assessment of calculations:

Were your calculations correct?

[LO 2.4]

Did you know?

The largest formation in the universe is called “the great wall” – a blanket of galaxies that is 500 million light-years long and 16 million light-years thick.

  • Our galaxy is one of billions of such giant star groups or galaxies!!!! This is only what we have been able to establish with our largest and most sensitive telescopes.
  • The galaxy nearest to us is the ANDROMEDA galaxy. Galaxies comprises groups of stars.
  • In between there are giant clouds of gas and particles called nebulae . They are the birthplaces of stars.
  • The theory is that a hot cloud of gasses - the solar nebula - revolved around a newly formed sun four and a half billion years ago and started cooling down. During the cooling-down process billions of drops were formed and started sticking to one another. In this way planets were formed.
  • However, it took another half a billion years to cool down sufficiently and form a crust.


  1. A light-year is.
  2. The Milky Way is.
  3. The Andromeda galaxy is

4. A nebula is

5. The reason why units such as light-years and AU are used is

Assessment of definitions:

Were your definitions correct?

[LO 2.4]


LO 1: Scientific investigations:

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

This is evident when the learner:

  • plans investigations;
  • conducts investigations and collects data;
  • evaluates data and communicates findings.

LO 2: Constructing Science Knowledge:

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

This is evident when the learner:

  • interprets information;

2.4 applies knowledge.

LO 3: Science, Society and the Environment

The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science and technology, society and the environment.

This is evident when the learner:

3.1 understands science as a human endeavour;


The origin of the universe


1. no matter – one little ball smaller than an atom; then a mixture of particles and forces

2. super force by which the smaller ball exploded in matter

3. a number of quarks were compressed to form hydrogen

4. a subatomic particle

5. a) merger of He atoms

b) C atoms under extreme temperatures

6. Force of gravity, electromagnets, powerful nuclear forces and weak nuclear forces

7. opposites of matter cancel out matter


1. 10 million kilometres

2. approximately 2 billion

3. 10 18

4. 150 x10 6

5. 100 000 x 300 000


1. the distance that light travelling at 300 000 km.s -1 covers during one earth year

2. an accumulation of billions of stars that include our sun

3. next nearest galaxy

4. gigantic clouds of gas among the galaxies

5. to make it possible to form a concept of a figure

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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