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Time Events
0 Seconds
  • Universe starts as a small, hot ball
10 -35 seconds
  • Space expands at a thousand billion billion billion times a second
10 -32 seconds
  • Space is filled by energy and matter such as quarks
10 -8 seconds
  • Matter and antimatter are formed
3 minutes
  • Quarks fuse and form hydrogen and helium
1 million years
  • Gas clouds form long strings
300 million years
  • Strings of clouds are formed, which form stars and galaxies


1. What did the universe consist of at the beginning?

2. What is the Big Bang?

3. How did the first elements originate?

4. What is a quark?

5. How did the following elements originate?

a) Be

b) Fe

6. Name the four most important forces in the universe.

7. What is antimatter and what would happen if it came near matter?

Assessment of understanding of the theory on the origin of the universe:

Do you understand the theory?

[LO 2.3]

Research Assignment 1: TELESCOPES

Write a project of four pages on the use of telescopes and the basic construction of telescopes. Hand your project in on a date set by your educator.

  • Find out more, specifically about the:
  • Hubble telescope;
  • Mcmath solar telescope in Arizona USA;
  • giant radio telescope - the Arecibo - In Puerto Rico;
  • the SAAO in Sutherland, South Africa;
  • the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) in Sutherland, completed in 2004;
  • the radio telescope at Hartbeeshoek, Gauteng.
  • Conclude your report with a review of the value of the telescope to science.[ LO 1.1; LO 1.2; LO 1.3; LO 3.1]

The Galaxies

  • Our sun is only one of an enormous collection of about two billion stars that lie in space in the shape of a fried egg with a diameter of 100 000 light-years. If you look up at the sky at night and see a band of small stars, you are looking at the Milky Way. This is actually only a view of the edge of our galaxy! The Greek word “galaxy” means “milk”.
  • The earth is approximately 300 000 light-years from the centre of our galaxy.
  • A light-year is one of the most important UNITS in ASTRONOMY that you must know. Scientists use such units because m and km are absurdly small compared to the large distances in space.


  • A light-year = the distance that light travels in one earth-year if it moves at a speed of 300 000 km/s -1

1. Calculate: a light-year

  • 365,25 days x 24 hours x 3 600 seconds x 300 000 km/s -1 = ......................................
  • Therefore: .................................................. kilometres
  • Million, billion or trillion???
1 000 000 10 6 MILLION MEGA
1 000 000 000 10 9 BILLION GIGA
1 000 000 000 000 000 10 15 TRILLION PETA

2. How many stars are there in our sky?

3. Express 10 billion billion as a number (it will have the prefix exa ).

4. Another important unit is the ASTRONOMICAL UNIT (AU) that represents the distance from the sun to the earth, namely, 150 million kilometres.

If the diameter of the sun is written in the notation 1,5 x 10 6 , how would you write the notation of the AU?

5. What is the diameter of our galaxy?

Assessment of calculations:

Were your calculations correct?

[LO 2.4]

Did you know?

The largest formation in the universe is called “the great wall” – a blanket of galaxies that is 500 million light-years long and 16 million light-years thick.

  • Our galaxy is one of billions of such giant star groups or galaxies!!!! This is only what we have been able to establish with our largest and most sensitive telescopes.
  • The galaxy nearest to us is the ANDROMEDA galaxy. Galaxies comprises groups of stars.
  • In between there are giant clouds of gas and particles called nebulae . They are the birthplaces of stars.
  • The theory is that a hot cloud of gasses - the solar nebula - revolved around a newly formed sun four and a half billion years ago and started cooling down. During the cooling-down process billions of drops were formed and started sticking to one another. In this way planets were formed.
  • However, it took another half a billion years to cool down sufficiently and form a crust.


  1. A light-year is.
  2. The Milky Way is.
  3. The Andromeda galaxy is

4. A nebula is

5. The reason why units such as light-years and AU are used is

Assessment of definitions:

Were your definitions correct?

[LO 2.4]


LO 1: Scientific investigations:

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

This is evident when the learner:

  • plans investigations;
  • conducts investigations and collects data;
  • evaluates data and communicates findings.

LO 2: Constructing Science Knowledge:

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

This is evident when the learner:

  • interprets information;

2.4 applies knowledge.

LO 3: Science, Society and the Environment

The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science and technology, society and the environment.

This is evident when the learner:

3.1 understands science as a human endeavour;


The origin of the universe


1. no matter – one little ball smaller than an atom; then a mixture of particles and forces

2. super force by which the smaller ball exploded in matter

3. a number of quarks were compressed to form hydrogen

4. a subatomic particle

5. a) merger of He atoms

b) C atoms under extreme temperatures

6. Force of gravity, electromagnets, powerful nuclear forces and weak nuclear forces

7. opposites of matter cancel out matter


1. 10 million kilometres

2. approximately 2 billion

3. 10 18

4. 150 x10 6

5. 100 000 x 300 000


1. the distance that light travelling at 300 000 km.s -1 covers during one earth year

2. an accumulation of billions of stars that include our sun

3. next nearest galaxy

4. gigantic clouds of gas among the galaxies

5. to make it possible to form a concept of a figure

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
what is the meaning
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
⅗ ⅔½
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Q2 x+(x+2)+(x+4)=60 3x+6=60 3x+6-6=60-6 3x=54 3x/3=54/3 x=18 :. The numbers are 18,20 and 22
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
find the subring of gaussian integers?
hello, I am happy to help!
Shirley Reply
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
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I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
yes i wantt to review
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
please help me prove quadratic formula
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
thank you help me with how to prove the quadratic equation
may God blessed u for that. Please I want u to help me in sets.
what is math number
Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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