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The organisms

Sexual cannibalism has been observed in 30 arthropod species, and occurs in all arachnids and three orders of insects [Figures 10-12]. One of these orders is Mantodea, which is comprised of about 2,000 mantis species worldwide, mostly within the family mantidae (Yagar and Svenson 2008). Mantises are highly predatory organisms, employing an ambush technique in which they camouflage themselves to wait for prey, then strike rapidly once food approaches. Most mantis species have spiked, muscular forelegs called raptorial legs, which are designed for gripping a range of prey, including lizards, frogs, birds, snakes, rodents, insects, and, of course, mates (Yagar and Svenson 2008).

Between sexually mature adults, attraction typically occurs via visual cues and the use of pheromones, which the females release during the nighttime (the organisms’ prime mating period) (Robinson and Robinson 1979). In order to mate, the male approaches the female, leaps onto her back, and uses his forelegs to grip her thorax and wings. Males transfer sperm from their abdomen into a chamber at the tip of the female’s own abdomen. Mothers can be polyandrous, mating with several males during a reproductive season (the number of males varies with the mating season). Eventually, she deposits as many as 400 eggs in a frothy mixture secreted by abdominal glands, which hardens into a clumped egg mass called an ootheca. After oviposition, mantis mothers almost always abandon the ootheca, increasing the importance of the nutrients and protective protein coat she originally invests in the egg mass.

ootheca from a praying mantis
A deposited ootheca from a praying mantis (Mantis religiosa). Egg clusters are typically abandoned after oviposition by female mantises (Robinson and Robinson 1979). Image :TarynMarie http://www.flickr.com/photos/tarynmarie/233251370/ .

Mantises exhibit moderate sexual size dimorphism ( Iris oratoria males, for example, are 49% the size of females), which improves the female’s ease of cannibalizing the male (Barry et al. 2008). An estimated 63% of the diet of female Chinese mantises ( Tenodera sinensis ) is derived from cannibalized mates (Fox 1975b). Even in species that rarely exhibit sexual cannibalism, the behavior can be a major source of population mortality if it occurs in a specific seasonal or life cycle frame (Fox 1975b). Thus, sexual cannibalism is a crucial component of mantis behavior.

picture of female praying mantis cannibalizing mate
A praying mantis ( Mantis religiosa ) clutches the head of a cannibalized mate. Female mantises may substantially improve reproductive output by engaging in sexual cannibalism before, during, or after copulation (Barry et al. 2008). Image :TarynMarie http://www.flickr.com/photos/tarynmarie/233251370/ .
A wide range of spider species also engage in sexual cannibalism, including wolf spiders, orb-weaving garden spiders, and Australian redback spiders. Though mating tactics, insemination techniques, and oviposition timing vary depending on the species, several common factors affect spider reproduction. Firstly, high sexual size dimorphism is common in spiders, and females can be over 100 times bigger than males (Schneider and Lubin 1998). Secondly, female spiders are typically polyandrous, though wide population dispersal and harsh environmental conditions can limit mating opportunities. When they do find mates, male spiders use palpal emboli (pedipalp) to inject sperm into female storage organs, and their confidence in paternity can be affected by the number of palpal insertions (Andrade and Snow 2005). However, as a tradeoff to trying to ensure paternity, males may incur physical damage from either cannibalism or the loss of their palpal emboli tips during insertion.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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