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All royalists were eventually slaughtered and Robespierre ruled with blood, consumed by a passion for a new order of life. He attempted to equalize property and abolish profit. Divorce was made easy and illegitimacy was approved. A new calendar was made. But somewhere in all this Robespierre became insane and was finally killed by his own group. The terror came to an end after 4,000 people had been executed. A new constitution of 1795 provided that France should be ruled by a two-house legislature and five executives known as Directors. A rapid recovery of market-regulated economic activity took place.

After his Italian victories, Bonaparte took an army to the Mediterranean, invaded and initially conquered a part of Egypt. He did this by making the Directory believe that he was indirectly attacking England by breaking their lifeline, but it is probable that the real reason for that peculiar move was locked into Napoleon's own dream of empire. He took scholars and scientists with him and these men did start the science of Egyptology, initiate the breaking of the old hieroglyphics' code and made some striking reforms in Egyptian public health. A combination of some reinforcement Turkish armies and a British fleet under Lord Nelson cut off Napoleon's ships and forces, however, and only he managed to escape to France at the end of 1799. In spite of leaving his men behind, he still managed to arrive as a hero, took over the Directory and conferred the administrative power to three consuls.

The French Revolution brought down the European Old Regime. Neither the previously existing radical ideas nor new technical processes could have transformed European society so rapidly and so fundamentally. In the last decades of the old regime, Russia and eastern Europe were drawing abreast of the political organization of other European states and were on the verge of tipping the scales eastward. The revolution changed this drift. Of course it was costly. Approximately 600,000 French soldiers died between 1792 and 1799, the survivors remaining outside France, living on plunder.

At the end of the century several great scientists emerged in spite of the turmoil. Laennec developed the stethoscope, Pierre Simon Laplace was a great astronomer and statesman and Lavoisier worked out a new theory of combustion and conservation of matter in chemical reactions while repeating many of Priestley's oxygen experiments with a better understanding of their meaning. Theophile de Bordeu held that the stomach, heart and brain each secreted a material to the blood stream necessary for health and thus became known as a pioneer in endocrinology. Dentistry became a separate, true profession with the work of Pierre Fauchard. His publication The Surgeon Dentist became a standard text for generations. (Ref. 125 )

The netherlands and belgium

At the beginning of the century Holland built ships for all of Europe and we have seen how Peter the Great of Russia not only went there to personally learn shipbuilding but then transported a number of Hollanders to Russia to establish shipyards there. In 1717 with 600,000 people

Braudel (Ref. 260 ) says that Amsterdam had only 200,000 at the end of this century. This only demonstrates the uncertainty of population estimates
, Amsterdam was the second largest city in Europe. (Ref. 131 ) It was a beautiful city but had one bad district, the Jordaan in the southwest, where foundations were poor and canals too narrow. Jewish immigrants ( Marranos from Portugal and Spain) and French Huguenots all congregated there. (Ref. 260 ) The great Amsterdam Exchange Building was finished in the preceding century and now up to 4,500 people were said to "crush" inside about noon every day. It was the busiest exchange in Europe, while the city, itself, was the center of the Amsterdam-London-Paris-Geneva banking supremacy. (Ref. 292 )

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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